Prūsijos valdžios aktų vertimo į lietuvių kalbą bylos atodangos: vienos polemikos istorija

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Prūsijos valdžios aktų vertimo į lietuvių kalbą bylos atodangos: vienos polemikos istorija
Alternative Title:
On a dispute over the translation of Prussian government decrees published in Lithuanian in the late-18th century
In the Journal:
Acta historica universitatis Klaipedensis [AHUK]. 2017, t. 35, p. 229-251. Reformation in the southeast Baltic region
Reikšminiai žodžiai: Prūsija; Prūsijos Lietuva; Prūsijos valdžios įsakų vertimas į lietuvių kalbą; Polemika; Christianas Gottliebas Mielcke; Prussia; Prussian-Lithuanian; Dispute; Translation of Prussian government decrees into Lithuanian; Christian Gottlieb Mielcke.
Christianas Gottliebas Mielcke; Polemika; Prūsija; Prūsijos Lietuva; Prūsijos valdžios įsakų vertimas į lietuvių kalbą.
Christian Gottlieb Mielcke; Dispute; Prussia; Prussian-Lithuanian; Translation of Prussian government decrees into Lithuanian.
Summary / Abstract:

LTValdžios įsakų vertimo į lietuvių kalbą ir publikavimo Prūsijoje gyvenusiems lietuviakalbiams praktika žinoma nuo XVI a. pabaigos. Ji sietina su dar hercogo Albrechto ir Reformacijos įvedimo Prūsijoje laikais išryškėjusią daugiakalbystės politika. Daugiausia šiandien žinomų Prūsijos valdžios įsakų lietuvių kalba pasirodė XVIII a. Prie jų vertimo ir publikavimo dirbo geriausi to meto Prūsijoje lietuvių kalbos mokovai. XVIII a. antrojoje pusėje ėmus silpnėti lituanistiniam Karaliaučiaus potencialui, aktyvėjo pastangos lituanistinę veiklą koncentruoti lietuvių dar gana gausiai gyventame Prūsijos regione, tuo metu vadintame Lietuva. Straipsnyje analizuojama, kaip šį pokytį išnaudojo Prūsijos Lietuvoje veikusi Mielckių (Mielcke) šeima. Christianas Gottliebas Mielcke, netapęs kunigu ir dirbęs kuklų kantoriaus darbą atokioje Pilkalnio parapijoje, 1781 m. pradėjo diskusiją dėl lietuviškų giesmynų rengimo principų. Jo brolis, Ragainės kunigas Danielis Friedrichas, 1788 m. surašė skundą dėl lietuviškų įsakų kalbos. Taip prasidėjo polemika, Mielckių šeimą įtraukusi į įsakų vertimo į lietuvių kalbą veiklą. [Iš leidinio]

ENThe translation of Prussian government decrees into Lithuanian and their publication was an important practice, which influenced the formation of the secular Lithuanian language. The best experts in the Lithuanian language were engaged in this activity. As the Prussian authorities established a statutory translator incumbency, with a fixed annual salary, in the early 18th century, the attractiveness o f the activity increased even more in the eyes of Lithuanian-speaking ministers of religion. When a relatively large number of educated Lithuanian-language students formed in the second half of the 18th century, competitive tensions between them continued to grow. At the same time, especially during the tenure of Johann Ernst Schultz (1742-1806) as head of the Lithuanian Seminar at the University of Königsberg, the earlier role of Königsberg as a centre of Lithuanian studies declined. Against this background, efforts to concentrate activities in the part of Prussia that was still densely inhabited by Lithuanian speakers and called Lithuania at that time, became more active. The most obvious response to this change came from the Mielcke family, who were known for their solid symbolic capital accumulated in the field of Lithuanian culture. Christian Gottlieb Mielcke (1733-1807) and Daniel Friedrich Mielcke (1739-1818), two sons of Peter Gottlieb Mielcke (1695-1753), an influential editor of Lithuanian-language writings in the first half of the 18th century, actively sought to consolidate their positions in the field of Lithuanian culture, and accordingly initiated a dispute, or polemic. In 1781, Christian Gottlieb, supported by his brother, initiated a discussion on the principles of the editing of Lithuanian hymnals. In 1788, Daniel Friedrich, supported by Christian Gottlieb, wrote a complaint about the quality of translations of government decrees into Lithuanian.The complaint was upheld by Karol Gotthard Keber (1756-1835), a senior church clerk, provost of the Gumbinnen district. An analysis of manuscript material relating to the dispute and stored in the Prussian Secret State Archives in Berlin, revealed that the polemic initiated by the Mielcke brothers had a clear outcome: Christian Gottlieb obtained an official translator's position, for a salary of 33 thalers and 30 pennies. The article argues that the decree of 8 January 1788 on the prosecution and detention of deserters was translated by Christian Gottlieb Mielcke, and not by Christian Ludwig Sackersdorff, as has been claimed. Mielcke also made two other translations: the decree on the trade in yarn of 24 July 1788, and the decree that forbade letting dogs run loose of 29 May 1789. Mieclke's antagonistic rhetoric, however, could have been the reason why the contract with him as an official translator of government decrees was terminated, despite his diligent work and excellent skills in the Lithuanian language. Thus, the symbolic capital accumulated by the Mielcke family was insufficient to consolidate their leadership in the field of Lithuanian culture. Nevertheless, the disputational activities of the Mielckes reflected and partially manifested the tensions relating to simultaneous processes in the creation of the Lithuanian language. In the mid-18th century, works of great importance to Lithuanian culture were written both in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and in Prussia: Bromą atwerta ing wiecznasti (The Gates Opened into Eternity) by Mykolas Olševskis (Olszewski), and The Seasons by Kristijonas Donelaitis (Donalitius). Both show that Lithuanian had superseded the previous 'status' of a language that was used only at home and in church.The Lithuanian-speaking community had shown the need for Lithuanian literature, while authors who were able to redefine the world in the Lithuanian language had already emerged. In this context, the dispute over the quality of the translation of government decrees initiated by the Mielckes should be regarded as an integral part of the process of the creation the written word in Lithuanian. [From the publication]

1392-4095; 2351-6526
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2020-09-30 22:41:32
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