Tarp praeities ir ateities: tradicijos ir naujovės tarpukario Lietuvos dailiųjų amatų edukacijos sistemoje

Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Knygos dalis / Part of the book
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Tarp praeities ir ateities: tradicijos ir naujovės tarpukario Lietuvos dailiųjų amatų edukacijos sistemoje
Alternative Title:
Between the past and the future: traditions and innovations in the inter-war Lithuanian fine crafts education system
XX a. pirmos pusės dailiųjų amatų sąjūdis; Profesinis lavinimas; Tarpukario amatų mokyklos.
Fine crafts movement of the first half of the 20th century; Professional training; Inter-war craft schools.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnio objektas - XX a. tarpukario dailiųjų amatų švietimo sistema, derinusi tradicinius ir inovatyvius žinių diegimo būdus, atlikusi reikšmingą estetinio lavinimo, modernizmo ir tautinės tapatybės skleidimo funkciją. Pasitelkus spaudą, archyvinius ir rašytinius šaltinius, taikant faktografinį, istorinį ir analitinį metodus, aptariami svarbesni dailiosios amatininkystės istorijos faktai, pristatomos savos švietimo mokyklos kūrimo problemos, reikšmingesni ugdymo židiniai ir kitų šalių edukacijos patirties perėmimo apraiškos. [Iš leidinio]

ENThe article presents an analysis of the 20th-century inter-war fine crafts education system which combined traditional and innovative ways of instilling knowledge, and carried out the functions of teaching aesthetics, modernism and spreading the national identity. The teaching of the fine crafts, which preserved a number of traditional measures, was improved throughout the whole independence period, seeking to create a universal system which would meet the country’s demands. It was declared that the special education system was being created in an empty vacuum cleansed of the tsarist regime’s education legacy, and was orientated towards values already firmly entrenched in Europe. Nonetheless, it is obvious that special education in independent Lithuania preserved the main teaching principles from the times it was one of the imperial provinces: the collective teaching of craftspeople, craft schools of several levels, the combination of technical subjects with artistic ones, professional teaching in evening courses and the conviction that a modern-age craftsperson had to constantly improve their skills. Incidentally, these measures which suited the needs at the time, can also be viewed as being European, trialled and tested in many continental countries from the 19th century. Even though the Czechoslovakia factor is unquestionable in the evolution of Lithuanian craft education, the data collected does indicate an orientation towards general European craft teaching experiences rather than focusing on one specific country, and the transfer of these experiences onto Lithuanian soil.Forms of teaching that had been adopted in Lithuania earlier were combined with the practices of other countries both directly (via laws regulating the activities of craftspeople, the structure and curricula of craft schools) and indirectly (teachers who studied and trained in other countries, the stylistics of their work, and their declared aesthetic principles). Lithuanian craft education is characterised by the modern belief that young people had to be trained by highly qualified specialists, which was confirmed by the strict requirements demanded of teachers. What can we notice in the Lithuanian craft education curricula from those days? Firstly, there was an accentuation of the national origins, and the entrenchment of identity in works of recognisable forms. The conversion of inter-war craft education into a planned, state-monitored activity gave evident results by the end of the 1930s. However, poor funding and strict state education policies regarding school and teacher qualifications had a negative impact on the practical activities of this field, and stopped craftspeople who did not have a teachers licence to transfer their wealth of experience on to the younger generation. [From the publication]

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2022-01-21 22:32:29
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