Karo padėties represinių priemonių panaudojimas prieš katalikiškąją opoziciją Lietuvoje 1930-1932 m.

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Karo padėties represinių priemonių panaudojimas prieš katalikiškąją opoziciją Lietuvoje 1930-1932 m
Alternative Title:
Martial law as an instrument of repression against the catholic opposition in lithuania (1930-1932)
In the Journal:
Soter. 2013, 47 (75), p. 19-30
Reikšminiai žodžiai: Karo padėtis; Autoritarinis režimas; Katalikų Bažnyčia; Lietuvos Respublika; Martial law; Authoritarian regime; Catholic Church; Republic of Lithuania.
20 amžius; Karo padėtis; Lietuvos Respublika; Katalikybė. Katalikų Bažnyčia / Catholicism. Catholic Church.
Authoritarian regime; Martial law.
Summary / Abstract:

LTPagrindinis šio straipsnio tikslas – įvertinti autoritarinio režimo Lietuvoje prieš katalikiškąją opoziciją 1930-1932 m. naudotas karo padėties represines priemones ir jų viešą kritiką. Atlikta įvairių šaltinių ir istoriografijos analizė leidžia konstatuoti, kad tautininkų vyriausybės veiksmai katalikų dvasininkų ir katalikiškų organizacijų atžvilgiu buvo neadekvačiai griežti – jokios grėsmės valstybės suverenitetui ar viešajai tvarkai Katalikų akcija nekėlė. Todėl visai pagrįstai daugelis jos atstovų karo padėtį šalyje laikė politinio susidorojimo instrumentu. [Iš leidinio]

ENThe main objective of this article is to assess the martial law situation repressive measures against the opposition of Catholic organizations, implemented by the authoritarian regime in Lithuania from 1930 to 1932. It also seeks to reveal how this repressive policy has been publicly criticized by the Catholic clergy. This study is based on the documents kept at the Lithuanian Central State Archive and published sources. Imposition of the martial law in the Republic of Lithuania (1919) changed the permanent internal legal regime, set in the Constitution, to exclusive, stricter, and setting greater limits on citizens’ rights and liberties regime. At the very same time the practice of administration of justice changed. In 1920-1926 the decisions, concerning the martial law, were entered by democratically elected parliament members, following the procedures, laid down in the Constitution. Every such political step spurred hot debates between the parliamentary majority of Christian democrats, standing for greater limitation of civil rights and liberties, and their persistent though not effective opponents from the left wing, first of all social democrats. During the period of parliamentary democracy in Lithuania the Christian democrats (with their party ideology mostly based on the authority of the Catholic Church) remained the most influential political power in the country. The issue of the martial law had become the value dilemma for Lithuanian political elite, the situation where a compromise could hardly be found. The martial law limited Lithuanian citizens’ possibilities to express their views in the press or public events. The permissions from the war superintendents, regional superiors were necessary for press and other printings, their making, organization of demonstrations, meetings, establishment of associations, parties.In the period of Parliaments the control of public social life was not very strict; although, various curious situations due to administrative restrictions and sanctions used to arise from time to time. The military censorship did not allow announcing in the press or public events news containing information about composition of the army, its locations, readiness, or to proclaim or publish inflammatory, demoralizing antinational material. The situation significantly changed after the coup d’état of 1926 when the authoritarian nationalist (tautininkai) government employed all means to suppress opposition. The war censorship became very censorious, did not allow any critique of the government and applied administrative sanctions to the press of the left wing, as well as of the Christian democrats. The regional branches of the political parties were not given permissions to organize conventions, meetings, and their activity was suppressed. In the beginning of the 1930s a huge administrative pressure was directed towards various Catholic organizations and clergy, who supported Christian democrats’ party. The war superintendents were backed by the police and superiors of the regions in persecution of political opponents and enemies of the regime. Superiors of regions and the police were the main aids to the war superintendents in controlling the press, meetings, persecuting the members of opposing and antinational organizations. The civilians, charged with antinational charges could have been tried by the permanent Army court, while regular courts coexisted in the state at the same time. Attempts of the authoritarian government to restrict political and civil freedoms in the country caused dissatisfaction of the Christian democrats and priests. The diplomatic relations between the Vatican and the Republic of Lithuania declined substantially. [...]. [From the publication]

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2018-12-17 13:42:33
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