Socialinis statusas ir lytis : geležies amžiaus Rytų Lietuvos socialinės organizacijos analizė

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Socialinis statusas ir lytis: geležies amžiaus Rytų Lietuvos socialinės organizacijos analizė
Alternative Title:
Social status and gender: an analysis of the social organisation of Iron Age East Lithuania
In the Journal:
Lietuvos archeologija. 2009, t. 35, p. 153-192
Kapinynai. Pilkapiai / Barrow. Burials.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnis skirtas Rytą Lietuvos pilkapių kultūrą palikusių visuomenių socialinės organizacijos tyrimui. Jame lyginamuoju principu analizuojami osteologiškai identifikuoti suaugusių vynį ir moterų kapai. Tyrime apsibrėžti statusą indikuojantys laidosenos elementai:pilkapio konstnikcija, kapo įranga, laidojimas individualiame arba gnipiniame kape, naujame arba anksčiau supiltame pilkapyje, įkapių ir jų tipų skaičius, sąlyginė kompleksų vertė. Kapų apžvalga atskleidžia penkias tarpusavyje susijusias statuso dimensijas. Tai - lytis, amžius, įgyta padėtis, įgimtas statusas ir chronologinė kaita. [Iš leidinio]Reikšminiai žodžiai: Rytų Lietuvos pilkapių kultūra; Laidojimas; Socialinė organizacija; Statusas; Lytis; East Lithuanian barrow culture; Burial; Social organization; Status; Gender.

ENThe paper, on the basis of the mortuary record, discusses the social organisation of the societies that left the East Lithuanian barrow culture (3/4th - 11/12th centuries). Its main methodological principle is the distinguishing of male and female burials that have been osteologically identified and their evaluation using various archaeological criteria. It seeks to reveal the status of the males and females, their importance in the social organisation, their social role, and the changes in these over the entire period of the culture's existence. The paper's database consists of only burials that have been osteologically analysed. Due to the specific nature of osteological analysis, it is necessary to restrict it to material from adult burials. The study is based on data from 425 osteologically analysed graves (72 inhumations and 353 cremations) from 67 burial sites. In all, the remains of at least 514 individuals were identified in the graves. The criteria for evaluating a burial's energy expenditure were defined for the study of the social organisation of the East Lithuanian barrow culture. Higher status is indicated by a larger barrow with a more complex construction, a more complex grave construction, burial in an individual (rather than a collective) grave, and burial in a new (rather than a previously created) barrow. More abundant and richer grave goods show an individual's greater wealth as well as the community's willingness to sacrifice an appropriately greater share of it to the buried individual. Three parameters are used in evaluating sets of grave goods as status indicators: the number of artefacts, the number of artefact types, and the imputed set values. The last parameter is the total of the imputed values of the grave goods in the set. They are calculated by correlating the artefact types with the set's diversity.In addition, the significance of grave goods as gender indicators was defined in respect to the East Lithuanian barrow culture. A review of the adult burials in East Lithuanian barrows reveals five interrelated dimensions of status: sex, age, achieved status, ascribed status, and chronological change. Sex was the main factor determining the status of each individual. Only slight differences are seen in the funeral rites; male burials have a somewhat more complex and diverse construction than female burials. But this social identity was clearly expressed through the grave goods placed in the burial. The clear differences in male and female status are not necessarily associated with only biological sex. Gender was partially a cultural category. Social status changed with age. The position of adults, as full members of the society, became stable at maturity. Age determined the funeral rites in so far as the individual characteristics changed. It is difficult to see signs of ascribed status in adult burials. It is likely that those individuals with the highest status were able to retain it and pass it on to their descendents. Those who inherited the lowest status also had limited possibilities to achieve a higher one. The significance of all the aforementioned factors on individual status was not uniform during different periods. The funeral rites for adults in the general context of the East Lithuanian barrow culture, which was characterised by consistent simplification of the funeral rites, did not change significantly. The differences in male and female funeral rites that became distinct beginning in the second half of the 1st millennium show the gradually, increasing dependence of status on sex. The position of females in the society became lower and closer to the position of the children during the culture's late stage.The changes in the ideology and the social structure are reflected in the sets of male grave goods. The dependency of status on age was insignificant in the second quarter of the 1st millennium. In around the mid-lst millennium the tradition for placing grave goods changed. Younger males began to be buried with considerably richer grave goods than elderly males. This change occurred at the same time as the standardisation of the grave good sets and the growth of the significance of the warrior attributes in them. The significance of ascribed status declined at this time. The differentiation of status among males of different ages decreased once again in the Late Iron Age. Male status was connected with the intensity of the community's military activities and the ideology created by it. Meanwhile the connection of female status with age always remained stable and the change in grave good sets was gradual during the entire period. Female status was less determined by social transformations, external convulsions, or other significant factors on a community-wide scale. It was always defined by the family roles and fertility. [From the publication]

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2013-11-26 19:54:09
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