Mokinių, turinčių specialiųjų poreikių, iššūkiai integruoto ugdymo paradigmai Lietuvoje

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Mokinių, turinčių specialiųjų poreikių, iššūkiai integruoto ugdymo paradigmai Lietuvoje
Alternative Title:
Challenges to the paradigm of the integrated education of children with special needs in Lithuania
In the Journal:
Pedagogika. 2006, 84, p. 146-152
Integruotas ugdymas; Asmens specialieji poreikiai; Vidinė segregacija; Heterogeninė grupė; Diferencijavimas.
Integrated education; Children with special needs; Heterogeneous groups.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje nagrinėjami integruoto ugdymo paradigmos teoriniai pagrindai, šį reiškinį siekiama atskleisti praktinio realizavimo edukacinėje erdvėje aspektu. Problema nagrinėjama remiantis mokinių tarpasmeniniais santykiais, metodologijos bei ugdymo proceso valdymo klausimais. Išryškinamas pedagoginio reiškinio paradigmos ir profesinės sėkmės aspektas. Siekiama pateikti siūlymų integruoto ugdymo, kaip vienos iš priemonių kurti solidarią pilietinę visuomenę, plėtotei. [Iš leidinio]

ENState Education Strategy for the Year 2003-2012 of the Republic of Lithuania (2003) highlights three priority areas: 1) esociety, 2) secure society, 3) competitive economy. By announcing the above-mentioned strategy, the State obligates education to assist the State in implementing the strategic goals. The following situation analysis is based on two of them: the third one, namely, "to nurture a solidary civic society", and the eight one, namely, "to reduce social separation and poverty in essence". According to the data of municipalities, there were 580 259 pupils in Lithuania in the school year 2005-2006. 10 per cent of the pupils (58 025) have special needs of varied degree. 15 667 of them, which makes 2,7 per cent of the total number of Lithuanian pupils, have disabilities that provide big or very big special needs. According to the data of the Lithuanian Ministry of Education and Science, 90,4 percent of pupils with special needs attend ordinary secondary schools with full or partial integration applied. The paradigm of integrated education defines a complex socio-pedagogical phenomenon including interpersonal relationships between the educators and the educated, educational content and educational environment; therefore, the whole educational reality must be considered when talking about the education quality of heterogeneous groups. Some scientific research carried out in Lithuania that look into the quality of the organization of integrated education, cause worry and concern. Heterogeneous communities with normally developing pupils and those with special needs learning together create favourable conditions to ground interpersonal relationships on the solidarity and responsibility of their members. One's otherness is perceived as uniqueness in such communities, able to enrich the entire community with new experience.On the other hand, it has been proved that favourable communal relationships in heterogeneous groups of children are formed with difficulty if pedagogical guidance is missing. The results of a research prove that secondary school teachers have acquired the education policy of Europe and other democratic states, which accepts pupils with special needs to the school community. However, a worrying phenomenon has come to light, namely, the unawareness of the pedagogues of how to act in the changed educational reality. Children with special needs experience isolation in common educational space. It shows the professional helplessness of the teachers and their inability to control the pupils' relationships and combine them harmonically. The researchers claim the teachers admit that educational situation can be improved but there is a lack of skill of creating a climate of solidarity. Heterogeneous educational environment requires three main competences: ability to apply new teaching methods, especially those based on metacognitive didactics, ability to use partnership methods, namely, being able to establish partnership networks at school, between the school and the family and between the school and other institutions, and ability to control administrative methods in creating physical educational environment favourable to heterogeneous groups by coordinating the actions of the participants of education within partnership networks, estimating the quality of the education of the pupils, both the normally developing and those with special needs. The research reveals a significant lack of competence among teachers and school leaders to apply educational technologies important to the education of heterogeneous groups.Incorrect perception of the integrated education paradigm has resulted in poor adaptation of educational environment and low development of educational technologies and culture. The State's strategic requirement to nurture a solidary civic society and reduce social separation and poverty in essence obligates the pedagogic community, to focus on society development processes that determine the formation of heterogeneous groups at schools. Professional educational culture would be enriched and the quality of education under the conditions of integration would be improved by the implementation of the following proposals: enriching the study programs of the institutions of higher education that train teachers and school leaders with methodologies of the formation and administration of heterogeneous groups; developing action combination and co-operation skills of future and working teachers and school leaders; developing knowledge on people's heath, social and cultural differences, special needs resulting from them and ways of meeting the needs; analyzing the issues of the administration of educational resources in common educational space; developing high educational culture of pedagogic community that allows to acknowledge otherness as a virtue; creating flexible Lithuanian education system, oriented to creative combination of personal aims and those of the society. [From the publication]

1392-0340; 2029-0551
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2018-12-17 11:54:05
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