Beieškant lietuvių ir latvių daugiabalsių dainų bendrybės

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Beieškant lietuvių ir latvių daugiabalsių dainų bendrybės
Alternative Title:
In search for common traits in Lithuanian and Latvian polyphonic songs
In the Journal:
Liaudies kultūra. 2004, Nr. 4, p. 16-25
LDB Open.
Daugiabalsės lietuvių dainos (sutartinės); daugiabalsės latvių dainos (burdonas); atlikimas; tradicija.
Lithuanian polyphonic songs (sutartinės); Latvian polyphonic songs (drone); performance; tradition.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnio objektas - senosios lietuvių ir latvių daugiabalsės dainos. Tikslas - palyginti, rodos, nedaug bendra teturinčias lietuvių sutartines ir latvių burdonines dainas. Nagrinėjant šių dainų muzikinės terminijos reikšmes ir prasmes, bandoma atskleisti jų bendras ištakas. Pasitelkiant latvių dziesmų atlikėjų terminus, giliau įprasminamas straipsnio autorės anksčiau (kituose darbuose) analizuotas sutartinių pagrindinės giedotojos - rinkėjos statusas bei funkcijos. Iki šiol nežinoti lietuvių burdoninių dainų terminai (pavyzdžiui, ūžimas, tranavimas) sustiprina prielaidą apie nežemišką burdonines partijos prigimtį, galbūt specifinę („nežmogišką") jos artikuliaciją latvių (irkitų Europos tautų) daugiabalsėje dainavimo tradicijoje. Metodai - istorinis tipologinis, istorinis lyginamasis, integralinis. Išvada: lietuvių ir latvių daugiabalsės dainos, analizuojamos drauge, papildo vienos kilų prasminį lauką. Tai skatina tolesnius lietuvių-latvių folkloro tyrimus įvairiais lygmenimis. [Iš leidinio]

ENThe author's object of current research-ancient Lithuanian and Latvian polyphonic songs. In analyzing the meanings and implications of the musical terminology of these songs an attempt has been made to reveal their common sources. According to the introspection of the author, one essential thing that both singing traditions, different by appearance though, have in common is the division of parts into the collecting of the text and the chanting of the refrain. The opposition to recite {sakyti 'to tell, say', rinkti tekstą 'to gather the text' latv. teikt) I to sing (giedoti, 'to chant' Latv. dziedat) has been known throughout many archaic traditions including the present day musical traditions of different nations in Africa. Through Latvian songs' terms refering to the performer (teicēja, lasītāja, saucēja, sācēja, iesācēja, rakstītajā, vārdotāja, barvede, sijātāja) corresponding Lithuanian sakytoja, skaitytoja, rinkėja, kūrėju, sijotoja, sumanytoja, žodžiautoja, pranašautoja and etc. the author is trying to make a deeper insight into the main singer's - the collector's status and functions that was formely analyzed in her papers. According to the author's presumption the collector was envolved in rituals as a very important executive (organizer?), occurred as a connoisseur of secret matters, acted as a peculiar clarivoyant and prognosticator. This might be confirmed by typological parallels of the other nations. For example, the name of philiads - poets and foretellers - comes from the verb "to see". In the 19th century chanters of sutartinės were called witches (the word founds its origin in the verb regėti 'to behold' which, in its turn, is linked with the phenomenon of clavivoyance, prevision).By her function the singer of the burden of sutartinės (i.e. the accompanying of the meaningful text) is close to the performer of the Latvian drone. The latter was called vilcēja (the dragger, the puller), ducēja (the blustering, the buzzing), rūcēja (the bambling, the roaring, the growling) and the like. Interestingly, ūžimas the 'roaring' (continuous and syllabic drone) is commonly found in a great many collective sutartinės. The author presumes that any earlier drawl of low sounds (or a monotonous reiteration) was realized as some kind of hallooing, buzzing, etc. by somebody or something (most frequently by an unearthly personage). This supposition could be justified by the recently registered peculiar kind of drone singing - the singing with the bass part ("with bass") and the remarks on the fourth voice part - tranavimas 'producing a drone's sound' in the village of Nibragalis (Panevėžys distr.). The verb tranuoti means to pull something with difficulty, to drag or also to go mad when attacked by god - flies in summer; the noun tranas implies the male of bees, the bumble - bee.In musicological literature a lower continuous sound is called bourdon; the term is originated from Fr. bourdon - "a bumble - bee", fauxburdon - "the male of bees" (Engl. drone and Germ. Drohn, Drohne have the same meaning). Thus tranavimas of Nibragalis gets mixed up in the area (Europe as a whole) of implications of the terminology of bourdonal polyphony (regarded as an ancient phenomenon). The terms of bourdonal songs (e.g. ūžimas, tranavimas) that were not under investigation up until now intensifies the presumption on an unearthly nature of the bourdonal part, perhaps, its specific ("superhuman") articulation in Latvian (and other European nations) polyphonic singing tradition. The joint analysis of Latvian and Lithuanian polyphonic songs replenish the area of implications of one another. It is a stimulus for further research into Lithuanian - Latvian folklore on different levels. [From the publication]

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2013-04-28 18:22:42
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