Lietuvių sutartinių ir ainų polifoninių dainų lygiagretės

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Lietuvių sutartinių ir ainų polifoninių dainų lygiagretės
Alternative Title:
Parallels between Lithuanian multipart songs and ainu polyphonic songs: factors, genesis, correlation of methods
In the Journal:
Lietuvos muzikologija [Lithuanian Musicology]. 2012, 13, p. 175-196
LDB Open.
Sutartinės; Bronislavas Pilsudskis; Ainų polifoninės dainos; Linijinis daugiabalsiškumas.
Multipart songs; Bronislavas Pilsudskis; Ainu polyphonic songs; Linear polyphony.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje pirmą kartą gretinamos lietuvių ir ainų vokalinės polifonijos tradicijos. Pasitelkiant analitinį aprašomąjį, istorinį, lyginamąjį ir tipologinį metodus, siekiama atskleisti šių genetiškai nesusijusių ir geografiškai izoliuotų tautų linijinio daugiabalsiškumo pavyzdžių (sutartinių, pakaitinių, upopo, ukouk, rimse) panašumą, pakeliui atkreipiant dėmesį į liaudišką terminiją, jos vartojimo svarbą etnomuzikologijoje. Mėginama atrasti bendruosius polifonijos raidos dėsningumus, pradedant ankstyviausiomis pakaitinėmis dainavimo formomis ir baigiant naujomis, paveiktomis XX a. kultūrinės aplinkos arba polifoninio dainavimo tradicijos atgaivinimo sąjūdžio. [Iš leidinio]

ENThe parallels observed by the author of the paper between Lithuanian multipart songs and Ainu polyphony are obvious and, at the same time, a rather mysterious thing. The Ainu is one of the ethnic groups of the Paleoasiatic peoples that mostly inhabits the northern part of Japan (Hokkaido Island and the northern part of Honshu Island), as well as on the Kurile Islands, Sakhalin and the southern part of the Kamchatka Peninsula. They are Japanese aborigines whose ancestors are believed to have settled on the islands about six thousand years ago. The origin of the Ainu is still controversial. They were very different from the peoples that surrounded them from the cultural, anthropological and linguistic point of view. Nevertheless, there is a mysterious link between Ainu and Lithuanian cultures (the first researcher into the Ainu was a nobleman from Samogitia Bronislavas Pilsudskis, an ethnologist and anthropologist; he made the first recordings of Ainu polyphony made in 1903). The Ainu have preserved the archaic syncretic genres "upopo" (songs sung sitting in a semi-circle, mostly in canon, more seldom in antiphony) and "rimse" (songs sung dancing in a circle, sometime sung in canon). Not only the forms of polyphony, certain ways of performing (canonical, contrapuntal, alternate) of the Lithuanians and Ainu but also certain peculiarities of music (repetition of short motifs of the melody, their imitational development, harmony of seconds) as well as of the text (incomprehensible onomatopoeic words, etc.) coincide. Some of those who sing multipart songs or listen to them have felt a peculiar impact of the sounds, involuntary involvement in the magic world of music and onomatopoeic words, a certain state of trance.In their aesthetics (controlled emotions) and certain musical features (repetitive technique, ostinato principle, minimalism) Lithuanian multipart songs are much closer to the Eastern than the Western traditional music conception. The repetition of simple musical segments, certain "revolving" structures is the base of many music cultures of Eastern Asia. It is maintained that the mentioned peculiarities in old cultures were connected with cult and magic purposes – a certain stereotype repetition of rhythm and melodic structures would produce a hypnotic effect. Just like Lithuanian multipart songs, the live tradition of the Ainu polyphony was on the brink of disappearance – it was reconstructed at the end of the 20th century. The renewal of certain tendencies of polyphonic singing common to both cultures and some other changes are observed. Canonic-imitative (round singing) is equally important for both the Lithuanian and Ainu peoples, which distinguish these two from other peoples. It is not surprising that polyphonic songs have become a cultural identity mark of these two peoples. [From the publication]

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2018-12-17 13:27:30
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