Šukionių kapinynas (Pakruojo rajonas, Lygumų apylinkė)

Direct Link:
Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Šukionių kapinynas (Pakruojo rajonas, Lygumų apylinkė)
Alternative Title:
Šukioniai burial ground
In the Journal:
Lietuvos archeologija. 2000, t. 20, p. 159-224
Notes:
LDB Open.
Keywords:
LT
Šukonių kapinynas; radiniai; chronologija; Kapinynas; laidosena; kapas; įkapės; papuošalai; ginklai; žiemgaliai; vėlyvasis geležies amžius.
EN
Šukoniai cemetery; Semigallians; burial rites; grave goods; chronology; burial ground; funeral customs; graves; burial items; ornaments; weapons; semigallians; Late Iron Age.
Summary / Abstract:

LTVienas plačiau tirtų pietinių žiemgalių paminklų yra Šukionių kapinynas. Tai labiausiai į pietus nutolęs žiemgalių paliktas paminklas. Jis yra pačiame Pakruojo rajono pakraštyje, prie pat ribos su Radviliškio rajonu. Už 7 km į vakarus nuo jo žinomas Stačiūnų kapinynas, apie kurį, deja, archeologai sužinojo tada, kai jis buvo visiškai suardytas. Iš šio paminklo pavyko surinkti tik pavienius radinius. Šukionių kapinynas ir dėl savo geografinės padėties (kol kas tai labiausiai į pietus nutolęs paminklas), ir dėl tirtų kapų skaičiaus (surasti 134 palaidojimai) yra svarbus, tiriant ne tik pietinių žiemgalių materialinę bei dvasinę kultūrą, bet ir sprendžiant painius baltų genčių etninius klausimus, nustatant genčių ribas, jų kaitą bėgant amžiams. Ilgą laiką istoriografijoje vyravo nuomonė, jog žiemgaliai gyvenę tik iki Mūšos, t. y. dešiniajame Mūšos krante, arba anksčiau užėmę didesnius plotus dabartinėje Lietuvos teritorijoje, pasistūmėję šiaurės kryptimi. Tiriant šį paminklą paaiškėjo, jog ankstyviausi palaidojimai datuotini tik VIII a. Gerokai daugiau kapų yra iš IX a., o daugumą sudaro X - XI a. palaidojimai. Tai rodo, jog Šukionių kaimo bendruomenė čia įsikūrė ne anksčiau kaip VIII a. Žinodami, kad ir Stačiūnų bendruomenės palikti kapai ne ankstesni nei IX a., galime drąsiai pritarti minčiai, jog žiemgaliai tik VIII - IX a. pasistūmėjo į pietus (matyt, nuo Rygos įlankos pastūmėti Kuoknesės srities gyventojų) ir apsigyveno anksčiau dykrose tarp žiemgalių ir aukštaičių bei tarp žiemgalių ir žemaičių.

ENThe southernmost burial ground at Šukioniai is one of the most extensively investigated archaeological sites left by Semigallians. It is situated by the edge of the Pakruojis district. For its geographical situation and the number of investigated graves (134 have so far been found) the Šukioniai burial ground is important not only as a source of evidence about the material and spiritual culture of southern Semigallians, but also provides information helpful while solving the complicated ethnic questions of Baltic tribes related to the boundaries of these tribes and their change in the course of centuries. It has been a common opinion in historiography that Semigallians inhabited the area stretching no further than the Mūša river, i.e., on the right bank of Mūša, or, having occupied larger areas of the present Lithuanian territory, moved northwards. Investigations revealed that the earliest burials can be dated only to the 8th century (Grave 47, which contained a crossbow owl-shaped brooch and Grave 110, which contained a socketed spearhead with a short pronounced midrib and large long socket and a few chance large T - shaped headband plates without ornaments). By far more burials belong to the 9th century but the majority of burials are dated to the 10th-11th centuries. This suggests that the Šukioniai community emerged not earlier than in the 8th century. In view of the fact that burials left by Stačiūnai community (7 km westwards from Šukioniai) date to the 9th century we can be positively sure that only in the 8th-9th centuries Semigallians moved to the south (perhaps were pushed out from the Gulf of Riga by the inhabitants of Kuoknese land) and inhabited the waste areas between the territories of Semigallians and upland Lithuanians and Samogitians.The Šukioniai burial ground has been known to archaeologists since the beginning of the 20th century. It is located in the southern part of Šukioniai settlement between the Vėzgė rivulet, present cemetery and railway Radviliškis-Biržai. In 1931 the Šukioniai burial ground was investigated by a staff member of "Aušra" museum B. Tarvydas. In 1939 teacher B. Brazauskas from the Pavėzgiai village excavated Švedukalnis. Systematic investigations were started in 1988 when the inhabitants of Šukioniai village decided to expand the cemetery, joining the near-lying meadow, to the south. It was then that the archaeological expedition (headed by V. Šimėnas) from the Lithuanian Institute of History began its work in the Šukioniai burial ground. The excavated area of 384 m2 contained 9 Graves from the 18th-19th centuries and 19 Graves from the 8th-9th centuries. As the burial ground turned out to be not completely destroyed the investigations were continued in 1989 and 1990 (the works were headed by the author). In three years an area of 1500 m2 was excavated revealing 134 Graves from the 8th-9th centuries, 9 Graves from the 18th-19th centuries (these were found right by the fence of the village cemetery) and one grave dated to the 16th century, which was uncovered in Švedukalnis. The latter represented a burial of two children. Three coins were found on their skeletal remains. On one of the coins it was possible to distinguish the date - 15..? [...].The analysis of the funeral customs, burial equipment and burial items leaves no doubts that the Šukioniai burial ground has been left by the Semigallian community. This burial ground bears the traits of alien to Semigallians culture - an unusually high number of graves with riding gear. This phenomenon can be accounted for by the influence of the neighbouring uplanders. The Šukioniai community kept relations not only with uplanders but also with Lettigallians. This is testified by Lettigallian hafted spearheads and "warrior" bracelets. The Šukioniai community was not isolated from other tribes by impassable forest tracts. On the contrary they kept close relations with the neighbouring tribes taking over their cultural traits. The analysis of the artefacts uncovered in the Šukioniai burial ground revealed that the earliest grave can be dated to the 8th, the latest - to the 10th century. The majority of the burials belong to the 10th-11th centuries. The stray finds - a headband plate, a pin with a flaskshaped head, a sash-like - suggest that the Šukioniai burial ground might include graves dated to as far back as the 6th-7th centuries. [From the publication]

ISSN:
0207-8694; 2538-6514
Related Publications:
Permalink:
https://www.lituanistika.lt/content/15446
Updated:
2018-12-17 10:42:48
Metrics:
Views: 30    Downloads: 14
Export: