Laidosenos ypatumai Vakarų Žiemgaloje (Pavirvytės kapinyno duomenimis)

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Laidosenos ypatumai Vakarų Žiemgaloje (Pavirvytės kapinyno duomenimis)
Alternative Title:
Peculiarities of burial rites in Western Semigallia (based on the data from the Pavirvytė cemetery)
In the Journal:
Lietuvos archeologija. 2004, t. 26, p. 29-46
Archeologiniai tyrinėjimai / Archaeological investigations; Darbas / Labour. Work; Kapinynai. Pilkapiai / Barrow. Burials.
Summary / Abstract:

LT1) Pavirvytės kapinyno griautiniai kapai, kurie sudaro 78% visų palaidojimų, priklauso IX–XIII a. čia gyvenusiai žiemgalių bendruomenei. 2) Degintiniai kapai skiriami XI–XIII a. toje pat bendruomenėje gyvenusiems kuršiams. 3) Inhumacijos papročiu palaidotieji laikėsi žiemgališkų tradicijų, kurios beveik nepakitusios išliko dvasinėje tų žmonių kultūroje, jų papročiuose, bet materialinės kultūros plotmėje juntama kur kas didesnė kuršių kultūros įtaka - nešioti žiemgaliams nebūdingi papuošalai, į kapą dėti žiemgaliams nebūdingi buitinės paskirties daiktai ir t. t. 4) Kuršių įtaka neužgožė žiemgališkų tradicijų, neišstūmė esminių žiemgalių kultūros elementų. 5) Kuršiai taikiai gyveno žiemgalių bendruomenėje, laikydamiesi savų tradicijų ir papročių. 6) Pavirvytės kapinynas nėra išimtis - dviejų genčių integravimosi pavyzdžių yra ir kitose vėlyvojo geležies amžiaus paribio kapinynuose. Genčių konsolidacijos procesas vyko visame to meto baltų pasaulyje. [Iš leidinio]Reikšminiai žodžiai: Pavirvytės-Gudų kapinynas; Laidosena; Dirbiniai; žiemgaliai; Kuršiai; Western Semigallia; Pavirvytė-Gudai cemetery; Burial rites; Artefacts; Semigallians; Curonians; Kapinynas; Degintinis kapas; Griautinis kapas; įkapės; Papuošalai; Darbo įrankiai; Vėlyvasis geležies amžius; Cemetery; Cremation; Inhumation; Grave goods; Ornaments; working tools; Late Iron Age.

ENIn the 4th-5th centuries, when the cultural zone of barrows with stone circles in the Northern Lithuania and Southern Latvia started decaying, in the central part of it the Semigallian tribes formed up. On the eve of the establishment of the State, it occupied quite a big part of the Baltic region. In such a big territory there were cultural differences, as the culture of neighbours influenced the communities which lived at the periphery. Until now this influence was observed only in the material culture. This article will analyse the features of the spiritual culture characteristic of Semigallia and will distinguish the culture differences which existed in the Western and Eastern Semigallia. Firstly, the burial rites were quite different. The Pavirvyte cemetery, the Semigallian archaeological site located furthest west, was chosen as a datum point. Lately in different discussions the Pavirvyte cemetery was not considered to be of Semigallian origin. So this article will try to deny this unsound opinion. The area of more than 3.000 square metres was explored in the Pavirvyte cemetery. There were 183 burials found, 38 of them were late and 145 burials were dated to the 9th-13th centuries. The Pavirvyte cemetery is the only known Semigallian architectural site where cremations were found. Inhumations do not make up a separate group in the cemetery. People were buried in succession, therefore, cremations were found among inhumations. [...] The archaeologists found the cemetery quite disturbed. There were only a few undisturbed burials. According to the information gathered, all the burials can be classified into three groups: Group 1 - destroyed burials (31,8%); Group 2 - disturbed burials (46,6%); and Group 3 - undamaged burials (21,6%). [...].Having reviewed the burial rites in the cemetery and burial items and their increasing number, we can state that the Pavirvyte cemetery belonged to some Semigallian community of the 9 th-12 th centuries, which spiritual and material values were gradually influenced by neighbouring Curonian customs. They were especially strong in the material culture. The Curonian settlements were located not further than 25-30 km from Pavirvyte. Inhabitants of both communities were closely coherent by different trade and economic relations. Such neighbourhood was reflected in the Semigallian culture, traditions and customs. This is obviously proved by utensils, ornaments, clothes components which the Semigallians took over from the Curonians. It is interesting that Semigallian male burials were richer in burial items. Among all inhumations, burial 22 of male individual distinguishes in burial items characteristic of the Semigallians: a scythe, a crossbow flat brooch with poppyseed-shaped terminals, two massive bracelets (2, 5). However, the same individual has also a battle knife/sword placed in the Semigallian way. This burial is likely to be the most typical example of merger of two cultural traditions. Cremations made up 22% only of all burials. They did not occupy a separate part of cemetery, but were scattered among inhumations. This proves that the community was undivided. If the individuals were not buried by separate groups, that means that there was no division among people. Buried individuals of other tribe should have been cremated. The inhumations definitely belonged to the Semigallians, while the cremations belonged to the Curonians. According to burial items, the cremations of the Pavirvyte cemetery are identical to other Curonian burials.The same might be said about burial items - a part o f them are broken. This is a reflection of the Curonian tradition that the belongings 'die' together with their owner. Burial items themselves are characteristic of the Curonians. In summary, we can state that the Curonians did not make a great influence to the Semigallian spiritual culture; they neither changed nor influenced the inhumation tradition and did not stimulate the Semigallians to switch to other burial rites which were strange to them. The Cremations in these cemeteries tell us another thing. Firstly, the Curonians were penetrating step by step into the Semigallian community. Also it was noticed that most cremations were male cremations. It is likely that the Curonians settled down among the Semigallians for some unknown reasons. In this regard the Pavirvyte cemetery is not an exception. In the eve of the establishment of the State, the consolidation process among tribes was taking place and reflections of it can be found in all tribe peripheries in the cemetery. Such is the Bandužiai cemetery of the Curonian origin, where the Scalvian cultural influence is felt, as well as the Šukioniai cemetery o f the Semigallian origin, where the Uplander cultural influence is noticed and without any doubt the Pavirvytė cemetery, where the Curonian cultural influence is quite clear. [From the publication]

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2020-03-25 15:07:34
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