The Main stylistic features of the Baltic crossbow brooches in the Migration Period

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Language:
Anglų kalba / English
Title:
The Main stylistic features of the Baltic crossbow brooches in the Migration Period
Alternative Title:
Pagrindiniai Didžiojo tautų kraustymosi laikmečio baltų lankinių segių stilistiniai bruožai
In the Journal:
Archaeologia Baltica. 2002, t. 5, p. 145-161
Keywords:
LT
lankinės segės; stilistika; geometrinis ornamentas/motyvas; zoomorfinis stilius; baltų gentys; Didysis tautų kraustymosi laikotarpis; Baltai.
EN
crossbow brooches; stylistics; geometrical; ornamentation/pattern; zoomorphic style; Baltic tribes; Great Migration Period; Balts; Crossbow Brooches.
Summary / Abstract:

LTDidžiojo tautų kraustymosi laikais, kaip ir Senajame geležies amžiuje, baltų genčių gyventa teritorija ir kultūra išliko viena iš stabiliausių centrinės Europos regione. Tačiau I tūkstantmečio viduryje baltų gentis palietė Didžiojo tautų kraustymosi procesai ir jų atgarsiai. Šiame laikotarpyje baltų gentys patyrė nemažų socialinių, teritorinių ir kultūrinių pasikeitimų. Vakarų baltai, gyvenę Sambijos pusiasalyje ir Olštyno kultūrinė grupė dėl prekybos gintaru buvo vieni iš turtingiausių baltų regionų. Intensyvios prekybos dėka I tūkstantmečio viduryje baltų teritorijoje randama gana daug importinių dirbinių, kurie buvo kultūrinis postūmis, sekant naujomis idėjomis kurti naujos stilistikos dirbinius. Senajame geležies amžiuje baltų gentys savo papuošalus dekoravo geometriniais ornamentais. Baltų ornamento sistemoje geometriniai motyvai išlieka ir I tūkstantmečio viduryje, tačiau jie labai pakinta. Atsiranda naujų, iki tol baltų juvelyrų nenaudotų geometrinių motyvų: "X", pusapskritimis, trikampis, trikampis su įvairiais papildymais viduje, rombas, "liepų" lapų pavidalo motyvas, įvairios spiralės, primenančios "S" ir atvirkščią raidę "S". I tūkstantmečio viduryje, lyginant su ankstesniu laikotarpiu, pakinta ir papuošalų dekoravimo schemos, atsiranda naujų papuošalų gamybos technologijų. Tai reljefiniai paviršiai, sidabravimas, auksavimas, juodinimas, papuošalų dengimas balto metalo plokštelėmis. Daugialypių kultūrinių įtakų pasėkoje V-VI a. baltų papuošalų formos ir ornamentika yra ne tik kupinos inovacijų, bet svarbu, kad šios naujovės tapo kūrybiniais impulsais kuriant baltiškų tipų papuošalus.

ENIn the complicated situation of the Great Migration Period in Europe Baltic culture and the territory are recognized by researchers as a most stable area in Central Europe in its permanent development from Roman Iron Age into the Early Middle Ages. However in the middle of the first millenium the Baltic people experienced changes in territory and in their social - economical life, mostly related to the processes of the Great Migration period in Europe. All of the Baltic tribes later mentioned in written sources emerged in the late fourth and fifth centuries. Samland Peninsula and Olsztyn culture unit ("mazur-germanische" Kultur) had the most special position in the Migration period. Olsztyn culture unit was unique for this part of Europe because of the wealth of their artifacts, which had features typical to the interregional Germanic culture. Samland Peninsula had rich amber deposits and since Roman Iron Age was trading in amber and had close and possible direct contact with Roman Empire. Olsztyn group was involved in amber trade and this was one of the factors of their wealth. A considerably higher number of amber artifacts occur in the burials of the Lithuanian cemeteries, which belong to the fifth - sixth centuries. Intermediate merchants from western Lithuania and perhaps lower reaches of the Nemunas region were drawn into amber trade The types of different artifacts and amber beads found in the graves of the fifth - sixth centuries could evidence an intensive long distance trade in raw materials between the merchants of the coastal area with southern regions. In the Roman Iron Age Baltic tribes used abundant geometrical patterns as well as open work designs to adorn and embellish their ornaments. In the middle of the fifth century a lot of changes in the geometrical style of Baltic ornaments took place.In the middle of the fifth century some new, never used before geometrical patterns, such as semicircle, triangular and rhombus filled by notches, dots, "X" motif, a motif of "linden leafs", spirals similar to letter "S" and reverse "S" were especially often used for decoration of ornaments. New ornamentation schemes, some previously unused by Baltic jewellers metalwork techniques appeared at the same time. They were chip-carving, nielloing, gilding, and covering of ornaments with embossed white metal plates. At the same time stamped decoration started to be the main way of covering of ornaments surface. All these new technologies were methods universally used across Europe. A lot of ornaments made from silver, gilded silver, bronze and iron or only iron appeared in the fifth-sixth centuries. Different types of crossbow brooches, bindings for drinking horns, belt buckles and their mounts as well as turned and semi-turned amber beads are known from Lithuanian cemeteries of the fifth-sixth centuries. A lot of these artifacts were imported from the Middle Danube area, Scandinavia, lower Vistula region, Mazurian Lakeland. Some of artifacts mentioned above, according to the imported examples, were manufactured somewhere in Baltic lands. All these cultural influences were soon modified and adopted to satisfy the geometrical pattern taste of the Baltic tribes.

ISSN:
1392-5520; 2351-6534
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https://www.lituanistika.lt/content/14684
Updated:
2020-09-25 21:26:28
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