XVI-XVIII amžiaus knygų grafika: herbai senuosiuose Lietuvos spaudiniuose

Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Knyga / Book
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
XVI-XVIII amžiaus knygų grafika: herbai senuosiuose Lietuvos spaudiniuose
Alternative Title:
Book grapfics in the 16th and 17th centuries coats of arm in the old Lithuanian
Publication Data:
Vilnius : Vilniaus dailės akademijos leidykla, 1998.
Pages:
341 p
Notes:
Bibliografija ir asmenvardžių rodyklė.
Contents:
Įžanga — Herbų atvaizdai senuosiuose Lietuvos spaudiniuose — Tradiciniai herbai — Sudėtinės herbų kompozicijos — Herbiniai simboliai iliustracijose — Herbiniai simboliai emblemose — Herbai kaip nuorodos — Herbinių kompozicijų kūrimo principai — Iliustracijos — Santrauka lenkų kalba — Santrauka anglų kalba — Rodyklė — Iliustracijų sąrašas — Literatūra.
Keywords:
LT
16 amžius; 17 amžius; 18 amžius; Genealogija. Heraldika / Genealogy. Heraldry; Knygos / Books; Menas / Art.
Summary / Abstract:

LTŠiuo leidiniu norima visus besidominčius Lietuvos Didžiosios Kunigaikštystės kultūra supažindinti su specifiniu, iki šiol beveik netyrinėtu reiškiniu - herbų atvaizdais senuosiuose spaudiniuose: nuo mažyčių, ženkliškų herbo figūros atspaudų iki išplėstinių, daugiaplanių, visa puslapį užimančių kompozicijų. Peržvelgus daugybę XVI-XVIII amžiaus Lietuvos senųjų knygų, matyti, kad iliustracijose vyrauja herbinės kompozicijos; dauguma jų yra vienokio ar kitokio pobūdžio herbų atvaizdai. Tiesą sakant, iliustracija, kurioje apskritai nebūtų herbinės simbolikos - labai reta išimtis. Siame albume pateikiama medžiaga tikriausiai bus įdomi ir heraldikos bei genealogijos tyrinėtojams, tačiau ji atrinkta ir sugrupuota remiantis dailėtyros kriterijais. Į herbų atvaizdus senuosiuose spaudiniuose žvelgta kaip į specifinę knygų grafikos sritį su savomis raidos tendencijomis ir žanro kanonais; siekta parodyti, kaip herbas, griežtai apibrėžtas konkrečios giminės heraldinis simbolis, palaipsniui tapo daugiaplanių kompozicijų sudėtiniu elementu. Kadangi visas raidos peripetijas lengviau pastebėti tyrinėjant kurio nors. vieno konkretaus herbo atvaizdus skirtingų laikotarpių leidiniuose, vaizdinė medžiaga šiame albume sugrupuota tam tikrais „lizdais": pirmiausia pateikti karališkieji herbai, toliau pagal abėcėlę - įvairių LDK giminių herbai. Herbų atvaizdai XVI - XVIII a. knygose buvo privaloma viešojo gyvenimo dalis, todėl neretai net ir patys primityviausi, negrabiausi raižiniai būna itin įdomūs bei vertingi kaip kultūros istorijos pažinimo šaltinis. [Iš Pratarmės]

ENCoats of arms illustrated in Baroque literature are discussed here in this book from the second half of the 16th century, when the printing business became especially active, until the middle of the 18th century at a time when book illustration tradition totally changed and decorating editions in an artistic style as dictated by the Neoclassicism epoque had begun. It is no wonder that compositions of arms are to be discussed in this book, as coats of arms in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania culture at the time occupied a special, exclusive position. At that time, when coats of arms of western Europe served nothing more but an aesthetic function and they became certain relics of the Middle Ages, in Lithuania coats of arms were actually well known and comprehensible. In fact, they were almost worshipped. The possession of a coat of arms in the Lithuanian social system during this time marked the owners as belonging to a noble estate, i.e. the gentry. Significant privileges were granted to the ones who belonged to the coat of arms. The attachment of great importance to the coats of arms can be clearly traced in the graphics of books. A coat of arms is one of the most frequent graphic elements. Five groups of arms compositions are discussed in the book. Such a grouping allows the display of the variety of the arms compositions and to feel the tendencies of arms liberation, which may be traced from the beginning of the 17th century. Though the existing composition rules of the coats of arms were very strict, they did not at all restrict the imagination of painters and clients. Pictures of arms in the books were extremely varied, from a modest schematic figure to very complex compositions. In such a complex composition, several plans are united and a portrait of the owner as well as various allegoric mythological figures could be engraved.The traditional picture of the coats of arms are the coat of arms prints, which have all the obligatory elements required by heraldic rules. That is, a shield with the figure of a coat of arms and a helmet with its cover, and the figures above the helmet (which are called the helmet decoration). Traditional coats of arms also embrace a priest's coat of arms but do not have a helmet and its decoration. Instead it is adorned by other attributes, such as a hat or bishop mitre and a pastoral. There are many traditional pictures of coats of arms in old Lithuanian books. Coats of arms began to decorate the books from the second half of the 16th century and even later, when various novelties, along with the complex compositions of the coats of arms, were introduced. An old printing tradition of simple, heraldically correct coats of arms remained vivid until the very last decades of the 18th century. Even extreme traditionally engraved pictures of coats of arms were treated by the publishers, first of all as illustrations of the books. Therefore most frequently various ornamental frames were used to decorate them. And very often their compositions were supplemented by many texts. The background was shaded by various textures and so on. Almost disobeying heraldic rules, royal coats of arms were also pictured traditionally, usually with engravings of coats of arms of the rulers and their family members which were moderate and expressive. They were most frequently executed by professional engravers. On special occasions in the middle of the 17th century even royal coats of arms were pictured disobeying strict heraldic rules, as the sphere of book graphics was affected by a common tendency of liberation and heraldic canon rejection. From the second half of the 16th century traditional pictures of coats of arms became the most popular and frequently used form of book graphics.Complex compositions of coats of arms are engravings, which along with the main elements of the coat of arms are used a great number of supplementary details, such as shield holders, architectural details, portraits, emblems or hieroglyphic symbols and so on. Such compositions are usually large, and frequently occupy a full page of book engravings. They particularly emphasize representativeness of a book, with respect shown towards a person to whom the book is dedicated. His social position is also praised and highlighted. Frequently coats of arms are pictured with shield holders, which may be of diverse origin from mythological and allegoric figures, angels, animals, fantastic creatures and others. Extremely elaborate illustrations are those in which a portrait of the owner is engraved. On the whole, combination of coats and arms became very popular from the second half of the 17th century. In most coats of arms there are illustrations of intricate character, where information about the person to whom the picture is dedicated, historical facts, genealogical references and so on is displayed. This is especially valuable not only as a fascinating idea for composition but also as a splendid source of history from the authentic material of that time. The third group of symbols of coats of arms used in illustrations is special for the reason that a coat of arms is not depicted in them according to the rules of heraldry but in prints it figures as a separate symbol. One or another figure of a coat of arms frequently becomes the major element of the illustration and the main accent of the composition. Sometimes one or several figures of a coat of arms dictate the concept of an engraving. Frequently a coat of arms becomes the leitmotiv of the very panegyric, a book title, and the engraving itself. [...]. [From the publication]

ISBN:
9986571332
Related Publications:
Permalink:
https://www.lituanistika.lt/content/100681
Updated:
2023-04-25 14:54:34
Metrics:
Views: 35
Export: