XVII a. Vilniaus rūmų architektūra - sintezės bandymas

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
XVII a. Vilniaus rūmų architektūra - sintezės bandymas
Alternative Title:
Architecture of 17th-century palaces in Vilnius: an attempt of synthesis
In the Journal:
Lietuvos istorijos metraštis [Yearbook of Lithuanian History]. 2020, 2020/2, p. 41-60
17 amžius; Vilnius. Vilniaus kraštas (Vilnius region); Lietuva (Lithuania); Architektūra / Architecture; Miestai ir miesteliai / Cities and towns.
Summary / Abstract:

LTKad būtų vertinamas politinėje scenoje, didikas privalėjo turėti atitinkamą rezidenciją Lietuvos Didžiosios Kunigaikštystės sostinėje. Savininko poreikius ir ambicijas atliepiantys rūmai atliko ne tik reprezentacinį vaidmenį, bet ir buvo vieta, apie kurią telkėsi giminės bei didikų klientų gyvenimas. Be to, įsiliedami į gyvą miesto organizmą rūmai tapdavo jo tvaria puošmena, neretai demonstruodavo jų savininkų tikėjimą ir politinę poziciją. Šiame straipsnyje sintetiškai aptariama XVII a. Vilniaus rūmų architektūra tiek tipiškų, tiek miesto įvaizdį formavusių originalių sprendimų kontekste. Taip pat verta atkreipti dėmesį į Vilniaus topografiją – labiau ar mažiau prestižines vietas ir priemiesčius, ypač Antakalnį. [Iš leidinio]Reikšminiai žodžiai: Lietuvos Didžioji Kunigaikštystė (LDK; Grand Duchy of Lithuania; GDL); Vilnius; Rūmai; 17 amžius; Architektūra; Miestai; 17th century; Cities; Architecture; Palaces.

ENThe article sets out to make a synthetic analysis of residential architecture in Vilnius from the 17th century that has hitherto been little analysed in research literature. Vilnius, the capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, was where every significant magnate had to have an appropriate residence, in order to be acknowledged in the political arena. Palaces that met the needs and ambitions of their owners not only played a public role, but also served as a venue for magnate family and their clients gatherings. By merging with the living organism of the city, they were not only a sustainable decoration, but at times would also represent their owners’ religious and political standpoint. An analysis of Vilnius’ topography helps to identify parts of the city that were considered more prestigious than others. These were mainly the area around the Grand Duke’s Palace and the cathedral, and along the via regia, which was where the Radvilas (Radziwiłłs) settled in the Middle Ages. One of the largest palaces in Vilnius, that of Mykolas Kazimieras Pacas (Michał Kazimierz Pac), was built there. The Radvilas also had property in Lukiškės, where members of the family would build residences. At the end of the 17th century, the Sapiega (Sapieha) family followed in their footsteps, not only by building a palace in Antakalnis, but also establishing a jurisdiction in the suburb.Palaces in the city were built in accordance with the linear development of the streets, at times on irregular-shaped plots of land, with buildings in the courtyards (such as the residences of the Bžostovskis (Brzostowski) and Pacas families). However, vast plots of land were used for residences on the outskirts of the city, and particularly in the suburbs, which were often surrounded by gardens, and included folwarks and even menageries (the Sapiega Palace in Antakalnis, and the Radvila Palace in Lukiškės, which later merged with the newly formed suburb of Žvėrynas). A separate issue to consider in the future is the relations between the estates and the religious buildings in the area, where families had mausoleums, or at least where they supported the parish. Some examples are the Gosievskis (Gosiewski) Palace on Bokšto Street and the chapel in St Casimir’s Church; the Bžostovskis Palace on Dominikonų Street and the altaria in St John’s Church; and the Oginskis Palace in Arklių Street and the family’s relations with and support for the Carmelites. In this respect, the ideal situation was in Antakalnis, where Kazimieras Jonas Sapiega (Kazimierz Jan Sapieha) built the Trinitarian church and monastery next to his palace. Of all the 17th-century palaces in Vilnius today, only those of Jonušas Radvila (Janusz Radziwiłł), Mykolas Kazimieras Pacas, Dominykas Mykolas Sluška (Dominik Michał Słuszka) and Kazimieras Jonas Sapiega have been preserved in a condition suitable for further analysis. Of them, the Pacas Palace can be singled out as a typical city residence, the rest were built as suburban residences. In analysing them, an attempt is made to link them with trends in residential building in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. [From the publication]

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2022-06-15 21:44:44
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