Lietuvininkų dainavimo tradicija XX a. antrojoje pusėje - XXI a. pradžioje

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Lietuvininkų dainavimo tradicija XX a. antrojoje pusėje - XXI a. pradžioje
Alternative Title:
Singing tradition of the inhabitants of Lithuania Minor from the second half of the 20th century to the beginning of the 21st century
In the Journal:
Tautosakos darbai [Folklore Studies]. 2021, 61, p. 97-121
Reikšminiai žodžiai: Mažoji Lietuva (Lithuania Minor); Klaipėdos kraštas [Klaipeda region]; Lietuvininkai; Dainavimas; Folkloro ansambliai; Tradicija; Inhabitants of Lithuania Minor; Singing; Folklore ensembles; Tradition.
Dainavimas; Folkloro ansambliai; Lietuvininkai; Mažoji Lietuva (Lithuania Minor); Tradicija.
Folklore ensembles; Inhabitants of Lithuania Minor; Singing; Tradition.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje analizuojama, kaip XX a. pabaigoje – XXI a. pradžioje vystėsi lietuvininkų folklorinė dainavimo tradicija. Gilinamasi į 1971–2020 m. Klaipėdos krašto folkloro kolektyvų, kurie savo misija arba vienu iš tikslų laiko lietuvininkų dainavimo tradicijos puoselėjimą, veiklą. Tyrimas pagrįstas iki šiol nenaudota medžiaga, kuri patikslina esamus etninės muzikos gaivinimo tyrimų Lietuvoje rezultatus ir rodo, kad Klaipėdos krašte susikūrę folkloro ansambliai taip pat yra reikšminga XX a. septintajame dešimtmetyje kilusio Lietuvos folkloro ansamblių judėjimo ir etninės muzikos gaivinimo dalis. Atskleidžiamas ankstyvasis lietuvininkų dainavimo tradicijos perėmimo tarpsnis, kuris susijęs su 1971 m. įkurtu tuometinės Lietuvos TSR valstybinės konservatorijos Klaipėdos fakultetų folkloro ansambliu „Vorusnė“ ir jo įtaka kitų Klaipėdos folkloro kolektyvų kūrimuisi bei gerokai platesniems Klaipėdos krašto kultūros ir švietimo procesams. Lietuvininkų dainavimo tradiciją XX a. antrojoje pusėje ėmė globoti ir reguliuoti Klaipėdos krašto kultūros ir švietimo institucijos, praktiškai ją perėmė ir toliau puoselėja folkloro ansambliai, pavieniai asmenys. Lietuvininkai šiuose procesuose dalyvauja gana rezervuotai. [Iš leidinio]

ENThe article analyses how the folk singing tradition of the Lithuania Minor developed in the late 20th and in the early 21st centuries. It examines the activities of the folklore groups in the Klaipėda Region during the period of 1971–2020, focusing on those that assert fostering of the lietuvininkai singing tradition as their mission or one of their goals. The study employs the previously unused materials, which allow revising the former research results regarding the revival of the Lithuanian ethnic music and show the folklore ensembles working in the Klaipėda Region as a significant part of the Lithuanian folklore movement and the revival of the ethnic music, emerging from the 1960s. Special emphasis is placed on the early phase in adoption of the lietuvininkai singing tradition related to the activities of the folklore ensemble “Vorusnėˮ established in 1971 at the Klaipėda faculties of the State Conservatory of the former LSSR, and the role it had in prompting the creation of other folklore groups in Klaipėda, as well as its impact on the broader cultural and educational processes taking place in the Klaipėda Region. In the 20th century, the prevailing narrative regarding the Lithuanian inhabitants of the Lithuania Minor maintained that books, hymns, schools, church, social and cultural organizations, and choral or theatre activities were the most significant factors influencing the cultural expression of lietuvininkai, while the Lithuanian folklore was hardly practiced anymore or even considered an inappropriate thing. Judging from the folklore recordings, the folk singing tradition supported by the lietuvininkai themselves disappeared along with the singers born in the late 19th century. However, after the WWII, it was adopted and continued by the folklore groups appearing the Klaipėda Region. These groups included people from the other regions of Lithuania who had settled there.This is essentially the process of reviving the ethnic music, which began in Europe during the Enlightenment period and continues in many parts of the world. “Vorusnėˮ was founded in 1971 as the first institutional student folklore ensemble in Klaipėda Region. [...] Until 1980, “Vorusnėˮ was the only folklore ensemble in the Klaipėda Region, but in 1985, there were already ten folklore ensembles. These ensembles developed different creative styles that perhaps most notably depended on the personal structure of these ensembles and their leaders’ ideas and professional musical skills. Generally, at the beginning of their activity, all these ensembles sang, played and danced the folklore repertoire comprising all the regions of Lithuania. The activities of “Vorusnėˮ and other folklore ensembles in Klaipėda until 1990 showed that revival of folklore there essentially followed the lines established in other cities and regions of Lithuania. During the first decade after the restoration of independence of Lithuania in 1990, folklore was in high demand. In Klaipėda, the existing ensembles were actively working, and the new ones kept appearing based on the previous ones. The folklore ensembles of the Klaipėda Region clearly declared their priorities, embracing all the contemporary contexts. Some of them associated their repertoire with the folklore of lietuvininkai, others with Samogitian folklore.The lietuvininkai singing tradition was adopted and developed in two main directions. The first one focused on authentic reconstruction, attempting recreation with maximum accuracy of the song‘s dialect, melody, and manner of singing, as well as its relationship to customs, historical events or living environment. The second direction engaged in creative development, including free interpretations of the songs, combining them with other styles and genres of music and literature, and using them for individual compositions. These two ways could be combined as well. Lietuvininkai are not directly involved in these activities, but they tolerate them and participate in these processes in their own historically and culturally determined ways. The contemporary artistic expression of the promoters of the lietuvininkai singing tradition is no longer constrained by the religious and ideological dogmas that were previously maintained in the Lithuania Minor and in a way regulated performance of these songs. It is determined nowadays by consciousness, creativity, resourcefulness, and knowledge of its promoters. The dogmas of the Soviet era and modernity have created a certain publicly displayed (show type) folklore. The ensembles took part of the institutionalized amateur art, subsequently becoming subject to justified and unjustified criticism, which is usually levelled on them by the outsiders studying documents and analyzing processes. However, favorable appreciation and external evaluation by the participants of the activities and the local communities highlight the meaning of this activity. [From the publication]

1392-2831; 2783-6827
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2022-03-21 17:05:07
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