Oslo lietuvių kalbų mokėjimas ir kalbinis elgesys

Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Knygos dalis / Part of the book
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Oslo lietuvių kalbų mokėjimas ir kalbinis elgesys
Dvikalbystė / Bilingualism; Migracija / Migration.
Summary / Abstract:

LTŠiame skyriuje keliamas tikslas išnagrinėti, kas būdinga lietuvių kalbinei elgsenai ir kalbų mokymuisi gyvenant ir dirbant Osle. Siekiama atsakyti į klausimą, kaip keičiasi emigrantų kalbų repertuaras gyvenant Osle ir ar keičiasi jų lietuvių kalba. Pirma bus aptartos lietuvių emigracijos į Oslą priežastys, apibrėžta kalbinė situacija Norvegijoje, išanalizuotas tyrime dalyvavusių informantų kalbinis repertuaras, gyvenamosios šalies kalbos – norvegų – mokėjimas ir vartojimas, išsiaiškinta, kurios kalbos vartojamos darbe, bei aptartos lietuvių kalbos vartojimo ir išlaikymo tendencijos. [Iš teksto, p. 150]Reikšminiai žodžiai: Dvikalbystė; Emigrantų kalba; Kalbos išlaikymas; Linguistic behaviour; Emigrant language; Knowledge and use of Lithuanian by Lithuanian emigrants.

ENThis chapter explores the issues of emigrant language use in Oslo which has become a multicultural city whose 30 percent of the population consists of migrants from a variety of countries of the world. One of the largest migrant groups in Norway are Lithuanians; however, as of 2016, Oslo alone was the city of residence for over 3 thousand Lithuanians. Since Lithuanians’ linguistic behaviour and trends of their use of Lithuanian in this city have never been researched, the major focus of the current study is on the influence of this multicultural city on the Lithuanians’ maintenance of the mother tongue and their acquisition of the host language. The main question posed here is whether the emigrants’ language repertoire and their (use of) Lithuanian have changed during their time of residence in Oslo. To tackle the research question, 27 in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2016 during fieldwork in Oslo and using the Skype programme. The goal of the analysis of the qualitative data was to examine what is characteristic to Lithuanians’ linguistic behaviour and their language acquisition during the time of their residence in the multicultural city of Oslo. The results of the study show that Norway is appealing to Lithuanians as a country that can provide economic and social welfare; however, people emigrate not only because of economic reasons but also due to the political and social situation that has developed in Lithuania. The majority of the respondents decided to leave Lithuania spontaneously, therefore, they emigrated with no knowledge of the Norwegian language. All the subjects unanimously stated that it was essential to know the language of the residence country in emigration and hence they held particularly positive linguistic attitudes towards Norwegian language learning and its proficiency.The majority of the respondents hoped they would learn Norwegian after their arrival to Oslo; however, once they start living in Norway, most emigrants tend to stop attending language courses due to the lack of time. Another reason inhibiting Norwegian language acquisition is the quick realisation of the newly arrived Lithuanians that they can get by with their English or with as much Norwegian as is required in their professional environment. Although local Norwegians strongly encourage Lithuanians to speak Norwegian, in the majority of professional domains higher proficiency in Norwegian is not required. Most emigrants, especially those who came to the host country after 2007–2008, have no close relationships with local Norwegian residents. As a result, they have little or no opportunity to use or improve their Norwegian and they lose the motivation to learn it, especially if they are undecided as to whether they are going to stay in Norway or return to Lithuania. The majority of Lithuanians in Norway work in multilingual professional settings, hence, English is usually chosen as the language of communication.The analysis of the domains in which Lithuanian emigrants use their mother tongue has demonstrated that Lithuanian is typically spoken at home, in the community, in social interactions with friends as well as other Lithuanians living in their country of origin. No major changes in the emigrants’ use of their native language have been observed, except for individual cases of code switching. The majority of the respondents stated that it would be difficult for them to use Lithuanian in work-related situations because they either had not worked in Lithuania or they had had a different type of job there. It has been noticed that the advancement of electronic technologies has contributed greatly to creating more favourable circumstances to fill the vacuum of the Lithuanian language among the emigrants. First of all, the Internet has provided Lithuanian emigrants with the access to Lithuanian press media, the possibility to follow Lithuanian news and other current affairs in Internet portals, watch Lithuanian television, listen to the radio, download books, etc. In addition, Lithuanians in Oslo have access to and use social media in which, depending on the needs of the target audience of their messaging, they use Lithuanian, Norwegian, and English. So, the development of electronic communication technologies and mobility possibilities which emerged in the 21st century have created particularly favourable conditions for the maintenance of the heritage language and especially for its active use. [From the publication]

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2022-01-17 19:59:44
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