1759 metų „Ziwato“ denominatyviniai veiksmažodžiai

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Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
1759 metų „Ziwato“ denominatyviniai veiksmažodžiai
Alternative Title:
Denominative verbs attested to in the old Lithuanian text ‘Ziwatas’ (1759)
In the Journal:
Res humanitariae. 2019, t. 26, p. 8-36
Keywords:
LT
Kalbos dalys. Morfologija / Morphology; Žodžių daryba. Žodžio dalys / Word formation. Parts of a word.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje pristatomas vienõs „Ziwato“ veiksmažodžių grupės – denominatyvų, t. y. vedinių iš vardažodžių (būdvardžių, daiktavardžių, įvardžių ir prieveiksmių), – darybos tyrimas. Analizuojamieji veiksmažodžiai priklauso kelioms darybos kategorijoms: padaromajai, suteikimo, fientyvinei, būsenos, instrumentinei, atitikimo ir dalyvavimo. Vardažodinių vedinių centrą sudaro daiktavardiniai, kiek mažiau užfiksuota būdvardinių vedinių. Vediniai iš kitų kalbos dalių priklauso periferijai. Prototipiniais vardažodinių veiksmažodžių darybos tipais laikytini padaromosios kategorijos denominatyvai: deadjektyvai su priesaga -inti ir desubstantyvai su priesagomis -avoti, -yti. [Iš leidinio]Reikšminiai žodžiai: Veiksmažodžiai; Denominatyvai; Darybos kategorija; Darybos tipas; Darybos formantas; Priesaga; Verbs; Denominatives; Derivational category; Derivational type; Suffix.

ENThe article presents an analysis of the derivational system of one group of verbs, denominatives in particular, derived from adjectives and nouns attested to in the old Lithuanian text ‘Ziwatas’ (1759). There are 97 denominative verbs in total recorded in ‘Ziwatas’. Most of them, 52%, are verbs derived from nouns, 41% are derived from adjectives, while 7% are derivatives from other parts of speech: adverbs, pronouns and interjections. The verbs analysed belong to the factitive, ornative, fientive, stative, instrumental, similative and participative word-formation categories. A substantial number of the verbs derived from nouns (more than 40%) with the most often used suffixes -yti and -avoti, and the less often used ones -auti, -inti, -oti and -uoti, can be ascribed to the factitive category. Half this number (approximately 18%) of the verbs fall into the ornative category: within this group, desubstantives with the suffix -inti are slightly more frequent, and a significantly smaller group of verbs have the suffixes -yti, -oti, -avoti and -uoti. Verbs representing other derivational categories comprise a very small group: five desubstantive verbs with the suffixes -auti, -ėti, -yti and -uoti denote a state. Instrumental and similative categories have five derivatives each with the prevalent suffix -avoti and the less often used ones -auti and -yti.Four verbs with the suffixes -auti, -avoti, -oti and -uoti belong to the participative category. The category of fientives is reflected by two primary verbs, infixed and sta-stem verbs in particular: the fientive meaning of verbs belonging to this structural type is prototypical, not characteristic of desubstantive verbs exhibiting a suffixal derivation. Verbs derived from adjectives exhibit significantly fewer derived categories than verbs derived from nouns: here the ornative, similative and participative categories are not embodied, due to the meaning of the original words. Like verbs derived from nouns, the majority of deadjectival verbs belong to the fientive category: 88% of ‘Ziwatas’ are derivatives of this type. The most productive derivational type with the suffix -inti makes up 74% of deadjectives.One more relatively often used suffix is -yti, less frequent ones are -(i)oti, -uoti and -avoti. The group of deadjectival verbs contains slightly more representatives of the fientive category: in total, three derivatives with the suffixes -ėti and -uoti and two infixed and sta-stem verbs have been found. Three verbs derived from adjectives that represent the stative category have the suffixes -enti, -oti and uoti. Verbs derived from other parts of speech, namely, adverbs, pronouns and interjections, comprise only 7%, and thus stand on the edge of the denominative verbs. The factitive category prevails among these verbs with the suffix -inti; only one verb contains the suffix -avoti. Two derivatives with the suffix -ėti belong to the stative category, while one sta-stem verb belongs to the fientive category. With regard to the frequency of the derivational means, the most frequent ones are the suffixes -inti, -avoti and -yti. The prototypical derivational types of denominative verbs are those of factitives, namely deadjectives with the suffix -inti and desubstantives with the suffixes -avoti and -yti. The derivational system of denominative verbs attested to in ‘Ziwatas’, an old text written in the Samogitian dialect in the middle of the 18th century, does not differ essentially from that of other written variants (and dialects) of the 16th and 17th centuries. It can be stated that in 100 to 200 years, the lexis and word formation changed only very slightly. This stability may have been predetermined not only by linguistic but also by extralinguistic (historical, cultural and social) variables. [From the publication]

DOI:
10.15181/rh.v26i0.2044
ISSN:
1822-7708; 2538-922X
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https://www.lituanistika.lt/content/85473
Updated:
2020-07-28 20:31:07
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