Tradicinė Vilniaus ir Kauno miestiečių būstų planavimo schema ir jos variantai nuo gotikos iki klasicizmo

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Tradicinė Vilniaus ir Kauno miestiečių būstų planavimo schema ir jos variantai nuo gotikos iki klasicizmo
Alternative Title:
Traditional houseplanning scheme of Vilnius and Kaunas residents and its varieties from gothic to classicism
In the Journal:
Acta Academiae Artium Vilnensis [AAAV]. 2015, t. 77/78, p. 79-114. Dailės ir architektūros paveldas: tyrimai, išsaugojimo problemos ir lūkesčiai
Kaunas. Kauno kraštas (Kaunas region); Rūdninkai; Vilnius. Vilniaus kraštas (Vilnius region); Lietuva (Lithuania); Architektūra / Architecture.
Summary / Abstract:

LTAutorius, remdamasis ilgamete istorinės architektūros tyrėjo ir restauratoriaus patirtimi, apibendrindamas savo bei kitų kolegų taikomųjų tyrimų ataskaitas ir publikacijose pateiktus duomenis, analizuoja Vilniaus ir Kauno gyvenamuosius namus nuo gotikos iki klasicizmo, išskirdamas vyraujantį trijų patalpų plano tipą, kurį sudarė du gyvenamieji kambariai abipus priemenės su virtuve. Pristatant atskirų pastatų tyrimų medžiagą, parodoma analizuojamo būsto raida. Atkreipiamas dėmesys į autentiškų virtuvių ir pagalbinių patalpų vietų išaiškinimo svarbą, nustatant gyvenamojo namo raidos dėsningumus. [Iš leidinio]Reikšminiai žodžiai: Vilnius; Kaunas; Gyvenamasis būstas; Architektūros taikomieji tyrimai; Vilnius; Kaunas; Housing; Architectural research.

ENThe author of the article analyses the residential houseplanning scheme, which was widespread in Vilnius and Kaunas from the Gothic period to Classicism. One of the features of these houses is their division into three parts consisting of two living rooms on both sides of the hallway with a kitchen. It seems that the type of housing under discussion was a unit that formed – with certain transformations and repetitions – a large (probably even the largest) part of residential blocks of flats in Vilnius and Kaunas. Moreover, this urban housing scheme was apparently applied in country residential houses as well. The research of buildings or their remains in the Old Town of Vilnius revealed that stoves in the rooms were heated through stove mouths installed in the side walls of the kitchen. Stoves were of the so-called ancient type, without flues, with a single fire chamber. Smoke from the stove rose through flues set up in the wall containing the stove mouth, or directly into a cavity under the fireplace hood in the kitchen. The scheme of the arrangement of rooms on both sides of the hallway with a kitchen was also used in public and auxiliary buildings, as well as in flats for lease. If a house contained rooms designed for commercial use, they could be accessed directly from the street. Unfortunately, as a result of a wave of installing large shop windows in street facades, authentic entrances to the ground-floor rooms from the street did not survive. The earliest examples with remains of stove mouths in rooms heated from under the fireplace hood in the kitchen were discovered in wooden (in the territory of the Church of St Anna–Barbara in the Lower Castle of Vilnius) and brick (13 Rūdninkų St.) houses built in the second half of the 16th century and the early 17th century. Approximately at that time the number of families living on burghers’ real estate properties began to grow and the construction of houses for lease started.From the second half of the 18th century, blocks of flats with identically planned flats on the top floors began to be constructed. Ancient-type stoves that restricted the planning were gradually discarded, and flue stoves that heated two rooms from one of the rooms became widespread. Although the means of room heating changed, kitchens of common use with open fireplaces were still built for some time. The article is prepared on the basis of the data of applied architectural research on Vilnius and Kaunas houses, which is compared with the inventory of Vilnius houses of 1636. [From the publication]

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2018-12-17 14:03:34
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