Raudondvario dvaro rūmų planinės-funkcinės struktūros kaita

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Raudondvario dvaro rūmų planinės-funkcinės struktūros kaita
Alternative Title:
Change of the planning and functional structure of the Raudondvaris manor house
In the Journal:
Acta Academiae Artium Vilnensis [AAAV]. 2020, t. 97, p. 66-127. Dvarų kultūra: erdvės, istorija, kultūros paveldas
Reikšminiai žodžiai: Dvarai; Rūmai; Planinė struktūra; Funkcinė struktūra; Apartamentas; Raudondvaris; Manors; Palace; Planning structure; Functional structure; Suite; Raudondvaris; Residences.
Apartamentas; Dvarai / Manors; Funkcinė struktūra; Planinė struktūra; Raudondvaris; Residences; Rūmai.
Functional structure; Palace; Planning structure; Suite.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje, pasitelkiant archyvinius šaltinius, architektūrinių mūro tyrimų ataskaitas, istorines fotografijas ir amžininkų prisiminimus, rekonstruojama Raudondvario dvaro (Kauno r.) rūmų planinės-funkcinės struktūros kaita XVII a. – XX a. pradžioje. Šiame architektūriniame tyrime atskirų patalpų ir jų grupių kaita bei kaitos priežastys analizuojamos atsižvelgiant į bendrus Europos kilmingųjų namų raidos procesus. Remiantis šaltiniais sudarytos įvairių laikotarpių rūmų pirmų ir antrų aukštų planinės- funkcinės schemos, kurios grafiškai atskleidžia patalpų tarpusavyje ryšius, parodo jų kaitą. [Iš leidinio]

ENThe Raudondvaris Manor (Kaunas district), traditionally called a castle, was built in the early 17th century, and up until the early 20th century changed hands several times, but the type of the building remained the same: it was a single-family – in this case, noble family – (manor) house. The outer shell of the manor also hardly changed, but its planning and functional structure underwent constant transformations in response to the changing models of lifestyle and the needs of the new owners. The Raudondvaris Manor was owned by prominent families of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and the surviving sources allow us to build quite a comprehensive view of the changes in the planning and functional structure of this three-hundred-yearold manor. Though the architecture of this well-known building has received some research attention, the change of its planning and functional structure has not been analysed, thus the object of the present research is the interior planning and functional structure of the Raudondvaris Manor and the aim is to show how it changed and what were the reasons for these changes. The development of the planning and functional structure of the Raudondvaris Manor in the 17th–19th century is divided into three chronological periods. In the first period, the primary planning and functional structure of the manor, built by the Gintowts-Dziewałtowskis in the 17th century and later owned by the Kossakowskis and the Radziwiłłs, is analysed. An important reconstruction implemented in the 18th century by the Zabiełło family is discussed in the second period. In the third period from the 1820s to the early 20th century, the reconstructions and minor changes implemented by the last owners of the manor, the Tyszkiewicz family, are explored. In his research of the planning and functional structure of the Raudondvaris Manor, the author makes use of three groups of sources.manuscript sources (the inventories of the Raudondvaris Manor of 1652, 1661, 1820, 1867, 1876 and 1903 (?)), architectural research of 1959 and historical photographs. The available resources implied the methodology – interpretation of the primary written and visual sources, and the approach of research on art historical sources. With the aim to reveal the reasons and importance of the manor’s interior planning, the reconstruction method is used. The results of the research allowed us to make two main conclusions: 1) the major stages of development in the planning of the nobles’ housing that took place in Europe and Lithuania are reflected in the object of research – the change of the planning and functional structure of the Raudondvaris Manor. Three basic stages from the 17th to the 19th century can be distinguished; 2) during the first stage of the planning (17th c.), the zones of the Raudondvaris Manor were divided into three parts. Representational premises of common use and private quarters were distinctly separated. The latter can be grouped into separate lodgings for the owner and his wife. This “programmed” zoning of the house, when the southern building was used for representation and the bedrooms were located in the northern building, basically survived until the early 20th century. During the second stage (18th c.), an important reconstruction was performed in the manor, and the 17th-century planning was changed. The major change was the division of both multifunctional great chambers into specialised premises. The lower great chamber was divided and converted into guest rooms, and the higher great chamber and adjacent rooms were restructured into a typical French state apartment. In the third stage (1820s – early 20th c.), the former state apartment installed by the Zabiełłos, in which representational premises were physically connected to the bedroom, was removed.Though in the third period, larger and smaller planning and functional changes were constantly made, the basic planning principle remained the same: the premises were grouped into clear zones: common rooms were located in the southern building, and private rooms were in the northern one (the bedroom was separated from the common rooms); 3) the reconstructed planning and functional patterns helped to better understand the changes, reasons and meaning of the interior planning. Though some wall locations remain debatable, it does not have a major influence on the perception and interpretation of the planning and functional structure. Though the planning and functional structure of the Raudondvaris Manor changed in different periods, it remained characteristic and recognisable, and reflected the general planning principles of European and Lithuanian nobles’ houses. Thus, the present research in many cases can be used for the further studies of the planning and functional structure of such houses. [From the publication]

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2021-02-15 11:51:44
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