Lietuvos lenkų padėties išskirtinumo klausimu: sovietinė etninė politika Lietuvoje (1944-1953)

Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Knygos dalis / Part of the book
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Lietuvos lenkų padėties išskirtinumo klausimu: sovietinė etninė politika Lietuvoje (1944-1953)
Alternative Title:
On the issue of the exceptional situation of Lithuanian Poles: the soviet ethnic policy in Lithuania (1944–1953)
Etninė politika; Sovietizacija; Ideologija; Lietuvos lenkai
Ethnic policy; Sovietisation; Ideology; Lithuanian Poles
Summary / Abstract:

ENThe article based on the case of the Lithuanian Polish community deals with the Soviet national policy during the Stalin years (1944–1953). In order to find out whether the situation of the Lithuanian Poles during the period was exceptional, their situation is compared with the situation of Poles in neighbouring Soviet republics (Belarus, Ukraine). Attention is focused on the western areas in Belarus and Ukraine as well as eastern and south-eastern parts of Lithuania that were incorporated into Poland between the First and Second World wars. During the first post-war years, the Soviet national policy concerning the Poles was the same due to the strict centralisation and goals to be achieved (the homogeneity and ethnic stability of the western parts of the USSR). In order to implement these goals in 1944–1947 the Soviet leadership arranged the resettlement of the former Polish citizens of Polish and Jewish origin in Poland. The result of the migration process in the case of Ukraine was almost complete disappearance of the Polish community. In the case of Belarus or Lithuania the Poles’ situation did not change so radically, therefore the natural development of the Polish communities in Western Belarus and Lithuania was only slowed down. In the cases of Belarus or Ukraine due to the inner factors of the Polish communities (unfavourable territorial location, etc.) the Poles’ sovietisation went smoothly. In the case of Lithuanian Poles sovietisation was hindered (due to the position of the Polish community – anti-sovietism, active community members, different cultural memories etc.). Therefore, the Soviet regime took measures to promote Polish identity in Soviet Lithuania with 200 only one goal – Soviet indoctrination that is necessary to create Soviet identity (Soviet people).The attention the authorities and society of the Polish People’s Republic to the Poles in the USSR (especially during the first post-war years) undoubtedly influenced the Soviet authorities’ attitude to the Poles while the links of influential Polish communists with Moscow helped to solve some of the issues of the Poles in the eastern and south-eastern parts of Lithuania. The decision of the highest power structures of the USSR was to stabilise the Poles’ situation in Soviet Lithuania at the beginning of the 1950s. Eastern and south-eastern Lithuania was turned into a “centre” of all the Poles of the Soviet Union; life there was coordinated by a Moscow representative. The semblance that the Soviet central authorities were concerned with the Poles’ interests helped to form and consolidate the stereotype that the Russians defended the Poles from “bad Lithuanians” and only thanks to Moscow aid the Poles had their own schools, press, and books. [From the publication]

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2019-05-16 22:20:23
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