Žemaičių vyskupija: nuo Reformacijos iki Apšvietos

Direct Link:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Žemaičių vyskupija: nuo Reformacijos iki Apšvietos
Alternative Title:
Diocese of Samogitia from the Protestant Reformation to the Era of Enlightenment
In the Journal:
Tiltai. Priedas. 2011, Nr. 42, p. 9-21. Telšių vyskupijai - 85 metai
Katalikiškoji reforma; Reformacija; Žemaičių vyskupija; Žemaičių vyskupystė.
Catholic Reformation; Diocese of Samogitia; Protestant Reformation.
Summary / Abstract:

ENProtestant Reformation was one of the major events in the history of the diocese of Samogitia. The first Protestant community in Samogitia was mentioned in 1559, and since the rise of the Protestantism continued, it seems probable that the Protestant nobles (mostly Calvinist) even outnumbered Catholic ones for a while. In the last decade of the I6th century there were only 48 percent still functioning Catholic churches, 35 per cent were used by the Protestants, and 18 per cent were kept vacant. Nevertheless, the very first years of the 17th century saw the rapid decrease of the number of Protestant communities, and the churches which had been taken over by them were given back to the possession of the Catholic Church. The period of the Catholic Refomation in the diocese of Samogitia (1576-1649) embraces activities of six bishops who were diligent in their pastoral service, carried out diocesan visitations and summoned diocesan synods, thus looking after the conditions of pastoral care and the discipline both of clergy and laity. Due to the pressure of bishops the clergy was reformed: celibacy, duty of residence and ordination to priesthood was enforced. After the establishment of the diocesan seminary in 1581 the training of the clergy improved, and the portion of the priests of local origin increased significantly. The diocese was divided into 6 deaneries in 1636.The core of the reform of the laity was the introduction of the regular sacramental practice. During the age of the Catholic Reformation Confession and Communion at Eastertide was universally accepted, the sacrament of Confirmation was revived, and the matrimonial reform of the Council of Trent was put into practice. Special attention was paid towards catechesis, and the first catechism in the Lithuanian language was printed (1595). The success of the pastoral reform of the laity on a large scale depended on the optimization of the network of parish churches which was successfully implemented in the 1st half of the 17th century. Foundations of new parish churches were usually initiated by the secular patrons. Frequent and active application of brachium saeculare was very helpful in introducing the obligatory spiritual practice among the Samogitian peasants. Religious orders and congregations settled down in the diocese only in the early 17th century. Jesuit fathers, Franciscan, Dominican, Carmelite friars were appreciated by local bishops as assistants in pastoral care and trainers of the diocesan clergy – e. g. the diocesan seminary was constantly run by the Jesuits who also launched practice of missions. The Catholic Reformation inspired the rise of the devotional life of the laity. [...]. [From the publication]

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2021-01-17 18:00:42
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