Imitatyvinės kilmės veiksmažodžiai prūsų kalboje

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Imitatyvinės kilmės veiksmažodžiai prūsų kalboje
Alternative Title:
Origin of verbs of imitation in Prussian
In the Journal:
Acta linguistica Lithuanica. 2011, t. 64/65, p. 31-50
Darinys; Forminys; Performinys; Plėtinys; Imitatyvai.
Derivative; Formative; Performative; Expansive; Imitatives.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje aptariami terminai, susiję su naujų žodžių formavimu. Aiškinama imitatyvo sąvoka. Prūsų kalbos paminkluose ieškoma imitatyvinių ar imitatyvinės kilmės veiksmažodžių, aptariami jų struktūros ypatumai. Lyginami rytų baltų imitatyvai su prūsiškaisiais. [Iš leidinio]

ENImitation-based words can be recognized by the evident relationship between their sound structure and their specific semantic features. Those words are of iconic nature. Words of imitation-based origin are frequently referred to as vocalizations (lautnachahmend in German; звукоподражательные in Russian) but this term is not precise enough. Though the greatest majority of those words are used to imitate sounds, they can also denote movement and images (varvėti 'dribble', tviiksti 'flash', blizgėti 'glitter', etc.). Imitation-based words can belong to different parts of speech. As a rule, those words are interjections and onomatopoeic interjections. However, verbs can also have their imitationspecific character, and this is true of some directly - formed verbs, not only of the derivatives from parts of speech with a strong emotional and expressive meaning component in them. Imitation-based words can be also found among nominal parts of speech, especially in nouns, though their number in those parts of speech is not large. The present article is aimed at finding out the specific imitation-based verbs in Prussian recorded sources. Imitation-based words of verbal character are abundant in the East Baltic languages. This fact enhances the credibility that words of the same character could exist in Prussian as well. An attempt was made to select all possible examples from the recorded Prussian sources that could 'lend themselves' to the study of imitation-based verbs. The very character of text-specificity in Prussian records does not suggest a great abundance of imitation-based words in those texts. Thus, all verbs that appear to have the slightest resemblance to imitation-based words were studied, especially the ones with strong features of vocalization.Besides, the words that have connection with some other related words with imitation-based meanings in other languages were also examined. The morphological and morpho-phonological structure of imitation-based words in Lithuanian and Latvian has much in common. Those words are both root verbs and derived verbs. Specific structure-related features were searched for in the Prussian sources as well. First of all, a study of Prussian root-verbs (suffix-free verbs) was carried out, and then derivative verbs were analysed on the pattern of grouping them into certain categories according to difference in their suffixes. About seventy root-verbs in Prussian can be identified. They can be characterized by roots of different structure, in many cases this structure is quite complex, with multiple consonant and diphthong combinations. This fact is an indication of a possible imitation-based word formation, whose typical feature is complex root. However, we did not succeed in identifying fully convincing imitation-based words, and we focused our attention on the verbs that have a strong likelihood of being related to imitation-based verbs: *trenk-/*trink- 'hit', grim- (grem-?) 'sing' and sten-/stin- 'suffer'. There are about 140 suffixal verbs in Prussian recorded sources with the suffixes (-in-, -Г-, -č, -ä- and -au-). The numbers of verbs with one or another suffix vary. Most of those verbs have the closely related suffixes -in- and -F-. A considerably smaller number of verbs have the suffixes -ä- and -au-. Thus, the verbs were analysed according to the word formation characteristics of the suffixes with reference to their possible imitation-based derivatives.Verbs with the suffix -in- in Prussian make up one of the biggest suffixal groups - up to 50 of them can be identified (though they are not always easy to distinguish from verbs with the suffix -I- as some of the words have double forms, with one suffix or the other). These two Prussian verbs could be said to belong to imitation-bases words: *klum-st-in- 'knock' and *zwaikst-in-/-T- (or *swaikst-in-/-i-) 'shine'. Verbs with the suffix -Г- are quite numerous, the suffix -I- in them is often used interchangeably with the suffixes -ё- and -ä-, and it is not an easy matter to count them exactly. As it was already mentioned, the suffix -Г- is closely related to -in-. Besides, verbs with the suffix -Г- can be easily confused with the verbs having the suffix -ё- (when the long ё is narrowed and it is marked as a long x). Despite these complications, it is possible to count more than 50 verbs with the suffix -Г- in Prussian though pure imitation-based words are hard to identify. Three examples were analysed as having imitation-based origin: *bil-i- 'speak', *kalts-T- 'ring' and *wak-I- 'invite', 'call'. Research data show that imitation-based verbs really existed in Prussian. However, rootverbs among those Prussian words could not have been as abundant as in East Baltic languages, especially in Lithuanian. In turn, the number of suffixal imitation-based words in Prussian must have been much greater. The majority of Prussian imitation-based verbs are likely to have been directly formed words. This feature brings them close to Slavic languages and makes them different from East Baltic languages, which are characterized by abundant suffixed derivatives from imitation-based root-words. Structural types of Prussian verbs also differ considerably from those in Lithuanian and Latvian. [From the publication]

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2019-12-07 18:22:40
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