XVI-XVIII a. Abiejų Tautų Respublikos užsienio prekybos struktūra bei mastas: Lenkijos atvejis

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
XVI-XVIII a. Abiejų Tautų Respublikos užsienio prekybos struktūra bei mastas: Lenkijos atvejis
Alternative Title:
  • Šešiolikto-aštuoniolikto amžiaus Abiejų Tautų Respublikos užsienio prekybos struktūra bei mastas: Lenkijos atvejis
  • Foreign trade structure and scope in the Republic of Two Nations in the 16th to 18th centuries: Poland's case
In the Journal:
Notes:
LDB Open.
Keywords:
LT
Kapitalistinė pasaulio sistema; Tarptautinė prekyba; Socialinė ir ekonominė istorija; Lenkija; Rygos uostas
EN
Capitalist world system theory; International trade; Socio-economic history; Poland; Port of Riga
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje tęsiama autoriaus pradėta XVI–XVIII a. Abiejų Tautų Respublikos (ATR) socialinės ekonominės istorijos analizė žvelgiant per dviejų konkuruojančių istoriografinių prieigų prizmę: vidines priežastis sureikšminančią tradicinę marksistinę koncepciją ir išorines priežastis pabrėžiančią neomarksistinę kapitalistinės pasaulio sistemos (KPS) teoriją. Šio straipsnio išeities taškas yra probleminė KPS koncepcijos vieta – pernelyg sureikšminta tarptautinės prekybos įtaka ATR XVI–XVIII a. socialinei ir ekonominei raidai, kuri identifikuota ankstesnėse publikacijose. Straipsnio tikslas – remiantis istoriografijos duomenimis nustatyti visų pirma XVI–XVIII a. Lenkijos užsienio prekybos struktūrą bei jos ūkio įsitraukimo į tarptautinę prekybą mastą kaip periferinio kapitalizmo egzistavimo šioje valstybėje svarbiausią argumentą. Straipsnį sudaro trys skyriai: „Tarptautinės prekybos įtaką XVI–XVIII a. Europos šalių raidai aiškinančios versijos“, „Lenkijos žemyninės prekybos vystymosi bruožai XVI–XVIII a.“, „Lenkijos jūros prekyba per Zundo sąsiaurį XVI–XVIII a.: struktūra ir mastas“. Lenkijos užsienio prekybos duomenys naujai interpretuojami KPS ir tradicinės marksistinės koncepcijų požiūriais. XVI–XVIII a. LDK užsienio prekybos su Vakarais analizė bus pateikta šio straipsnio tęsinyje.Straipsnis tęsia žurnale Lituanistica (2011, Nr. 1(83)) pradėtą XVI–XVIII a. Abiejų Tautų Respublikos (ATR) užsienio prekybos struktūros bei masto analizę. Šiame straipsnyje remiantis istoriografijos duomenimis siekiama nustatyti XVI–XVIII a. Lietuvos Didžiosios Kunigaikštystės (LDK) užsienio prekybos struktūrą bei jos įsitraukimo į tarptautinę prekybą mastą. Straipsnį sudaro du skyriai (LDK XVI– XVIII a. užsienio prekybos integracija į Europos rinkos santykius: jūros prekybos vaidmuo ir jo didėjimas; LDK XVI–XVIII a. užsienio prekyba su Vakarais: struktūra ir mastas) bei Apibendrinimas. Pastarajame pateiktos šio tyrimo išvados, Lenkijos ir LDK užsienio prekybos su Vakarais struktūrų bei masto lyginamoji analizė, nustatytas ATR įsitraukimo į tarptautinę prekybą mastas. [Iš leidinio]

ENThis article continues the author’s analysis of the socio-economic history of the Republic of Two Nations (RTN) in the 16th–18th centuries, considering the problem of using two competing historical approaches – the traditional Marxist conception emphasizing internal causes and the neo-Marxist capitalist world system (CWS) theory emphasizing external causes. The point of departure for this article is a problem area in the CWS concept: the exaggerated influence of foreign trade in the RTN in the 16th–18th centuries on economic development, identified in earlier works. The point of the article is to determine, based on historiographic information, first the structure of Poland’s foreign trade and the scale of participation of its economy in foreign trade in the 16th–18th centuries as the main argument for the existence of peripheral capitalism in this state. The article is composed of three sections: “Explanatory Version of the Influence of Foreign Trade on the Development of European Countries in the 16th–18th Centuries”, “Features of the Development of Polish Continental Trade in the 16th–18th Centuries” and “Polish Marine Trade through the Sound in the 16th–18th Centuries: Structure and Scope”. The author ofters a new interpretation of Polish foreign trade data in terms of the CWS and traditional Marxist conceptual views. The study shows that in the trade structure of Poland’s export via the Sound, in the 16th–18th centuries grain was the main item (mostly rye and wheat), and forest products were the next most significant item (mainly wainscott for producing clapholt). In the trade structure of Polish imports, in terms of volume, the three most important items were salt, herring and textiles.The volumes of the latter supplied to Poland grew remarkably in the first half of the 17th century; at the same time, Polish grain exports fell drastically. There was an intensive export of oxen in Polish continental trade in the 16th–18th centuries, which in its importance and scope was more significant than the Polish grain export. Analysis of Polish oxen export data shows that exports of cattle didn’t decline from the mid-17th century onward (unlike supplies of grain to the West) but grew (from 60,000 to 80,000–90,000 cattle annually). After the 16th and the first half of the 17th centuries, the active balance of Polish marine trade with the West via the Sound in the second half of the 17th and the second half of the 18th centuries reached the passive balance for this country. This balance is a reflection of the negative foreign trade balance in the same period. Although it was noted rather explicitly in the CWS concept that Poland’s economic production orientation had been dictated by international prices at its main ports such as Gdansk and Elbing (for example, increased prices of grain at the ports caused a greater volume of production), a detailed historical analysis showed that prices of Polish production were caused not by the demand on the international market, but by the overall sizes of harvests in this country (during good harvest years the prices were lower, and vice versa). Poland, making use of a favourable conjunction of prices on the international market, was a passive supplier of the needs of Western European countries, which shows the country’s small scale of participation in international trade. An analysis of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania’s foreign trade with the West will be presented in the next article.This article continues and concludes an analysis of the structure and scope of foreign trade in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in the 16th to 18th centuries, published in “Lituanistica” (issue 1 (83), 2011). The previous study dealt with the extent to which Poland’s foreign trade structure and economy were integrated with international trade. The present article is an attempt to define, based on historiographic data, the foreign trade structure of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the 16th to 18th centuries and the extent of its inclusion into international trade. The article has two parts: “The integration of the foreign trade of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania into the European Market Relationships in the 16th–18th centuries: the role of maritime trade and its increase” and “The Grand Duchy of Lithuania’s foreign trade with the West in the 16th–18th centuries: structure and extent”. These are followed by a summary which presents the conclusions of this research, a comparative analysis of Polish and Lithuanian foreign trade with Western structures, and an assessment of the extent of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth integration into international trade. [From the publication]

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0235-716X, 2424-4716
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Updated:
2013-04-28 22:24:10
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