Vilniaus dailieji amatai XX a. pirmojoje pusėje

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Vilniaus dailieji amatai XX a. pirmojoje pusėje
Alternative Title:
Vilnius handicrafts in the 1st half of the 20th century
In the Journal:
Acta Academiae Artium Vilnensis [AAAV]. 2010, t. 57, p. 169-189. Meninis Vilnius: įtakos ir įvaizdžiai
Vilniaus krašto amatai; Vilniaus krašto liaudies menas; Stepono Batoro universiteto Etnologijos ir etnografijos katedra; Cezaria Baudouin de Courtenay-Ehrenkreutzowa; Šv. Kazimiero mugė.
Handicrafts of Vilnius region; Folk art of Vilnius region; Department of Ethnology and Ethnography of Vilnius Stephen Batory University; Cezaria Baudouin de Courtenay-Ehrenkreutzowa; St. Casimir’s fair.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnio tikslas – atskleisti XX a. pirmosios pusės dailiųjų amatų plėtrą Vilniaus krašte, nušviečiant svarbiausias raidos tendencijas, funkcionavimo struktūrą, organizacijas ir mokymo įstaigas. Didžiausias dėmesys skiriamas tarpukario amatams, kurie neretai vis dar priskiriami Lenkijos kultūros istorijai. Prieinama prie išvadų, kad 1920 m. atplėšus sostinę nuo Lietuvos ir inkorporavus amatų sritį į Lenkijos ekonomikos struktūras, Vilniaus amatų raida pasuko kitu keliu nei Lietuvos Respublikos amatininkystė. [Iš leidinio]

ENDuring the first decades of the 20th century Vilnius was an important centre of Lithuanian crafts. The production of handicrafts had been popular around the infertile lands of Vilnius region from olden times and it was those solitary persons who perceived the economical benefit of traditional crafts who largely contributed to their development. One of these was the banker and patron Juozapas Montvila who founded trade associations, Vilnius Craftsmen Fair (1890) and provided free classes of technical drawing for tradesmen (1893). As Vilnius was a centre of attraction for well-educated people, various craft supporting associations begun to be founded. The movement for national revival gave a stimulus to the spread of such associations, with scientific and cultural associations being founded and folk art collecting and research becoming more intense. During the period of World War I the House of Labor (Wilnaer Arbeitstuben) with Lithuanian, Polish, Belaruss and Jewish workshops was in operation. After the 1920 occupation of the Vilnius region, handicrafts joined the ranks of the common economic structures of Poland. Due to the altered situation, various branches of crafts went into a decline which lasted until the 1930s and their rise began only after their development became coordinated some time later. The Vilnius branch of the Polish Folk Industry Support Association oversaw the development of traditional crafts. Contributions to it were also provided by the ethnologists who worked in the Department of Ethnology and Ethnography (founded in 1927) of Vilnius Stephen Batory University. Following the example of the education system of Poland, specialized schools and lyceums were opened. Drawing classes for craftsmen were in operation, and fairs for ethnography and handicraft organized.Handicrafts were featured in the market of the Folk Industry Fair (founded in 1926). The development of inter-war Vilnius handicrafts was characterized by co-operation. Here the workshops of individual trades were in operation, yet from the early 1940s, after the crisis of economy took root, craftsmen rallied into cooperatives (there were 15 of them in 1939). Vilnius was famous for its gloves and wooden, leather and fur wares. After the region of Vilnius was returned to Lithuania in 1939, one needed to survive and adjust to new conditions. The facts presented in this article demonstrate that the 20th century craftsmanship of Vilnius region experienced a few cardinal historical–economical turns that altered its development and forced the craftsmen of the region to re-orientate themselves. [From the publication]

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2018-12-17 12:52:18
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