Emigracijos į JAV ir lituanistinio švietimo išeivijoje ypatumų raiška

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Emigracijos į JAV ir lituanistinio švietimo išeivijoje ypatumų raiška
Alternative Title:
Pecularities of emigration to the USA and Lithuanian education in emigration
In the Journal:
Gimtasai kraštas. 2008, t. 1, p. 28-38
20 amžius; 1795-1915. Lietuva Rusijos imperijos sudėtyje.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje, remiantis istorijos šaltinių lyginamąja analize, aptariama lietuvių emigracijos į JAV nuo XIX a. vid. iki XXI a. pradžios periodizacija, etninių grupių iš Europos į Ameriką emigracijos panašumai, emigrantų iš Lietuvos įvairių periodų specifika ir skirtumai. Didelis dėmesys skiriamas lituanistinių mokyklų JAV ištakoms, lituanistinio švietimo pakilimui, prasidėjusiam po Antrojo pasaulinio karo. Aptariama XXI a. pr. lituanistinių mokyklų JAV situacija ir lietuvybės sklaida. [Iš leidinio]Reikšminiai žodžiai: Emigracija; Emigracija į JAV; Emigracija, imigracija, etninės grupės, išeivija, periodizacija, lituanistinis švietimas, mokyklų situacija; Etninės grupės; Imigracija; Išeivija; Lietuvių emigracija; Lituanistinis švietimas; Lituanistinės mokyklos; Emigracija; Emigrants; Emigration; Emigration of the Lithuanians; Emigration to the USA; Emigration, emigrants, immigration, ethnic groups, periodization, Lithuanian education, school situation; Ethnic groups; Immigration; Lithuanian education; Lithuanian schools.

ENBasing himself on the historical sources, comparative literary analysis (there are 43 sources of literature mentioned in the article) and his direct observation (1995–2008) Tumėnas describes specific features and division into periods the emigration of Lithuanians to the USA from the middle of the 19th century up to the beginning of the 21st century. The review of the development of emigration of the Lithuanians to the USA shows that mass emigration from Lithuania from the middle of the 19th century up to the beginning of the 20th century is not a idiosyncrasy of Lithuanians. At that time almost 30 million people emigrated to the USA from other European countries. Emigration of so many people from Europe to the USA is connected with decline of agriculture, crop failure, famine, etc. in their countries. It was a period problem of Lithuania too however, the Lithuanians also emigrated because of political motives: avoiding to serve in the tsarist army, tsarist repressions, revolutionary movement in the Tsarist Russia in 1905–1907, etc. In 1899, in the USA statistic documents of the population there was no entry "Lithuanian", "Lithuania" so this caused trouble in order to establish a more exact number of Lithuanians in the USA. There is no exact and uniform division into periods of emigration to the USA. Though historians Eidintas and Truska give more detail division into periods, perhaps it is enough to have most often mentioned three periods, waves of emigration: 1. 1868–1940; 2. The refugee wave after the World War II till the sixth decade of the 20th century; 3. The Soviet wave from 1988 till now.In the beginning of the 21st century 800000 Lithuanians lived in the USA. Their Lithuanian identity is cherished in Lithuanian Saturday and Sunday schools. Lithuanian education is understood more widely in the USA than in Lithuania. It is not only the Lithuanian language and literature but also the studying, fostering and spreading of Lithuanian history, traditions, customs, songs and dances. The fact that in the USA there open more Lithuanian schools makes us optimistic that the Lithuanian identity of Lithuanian emigrants in the USA and Americans’ of Lithuanian origin will be retained in the future. In 2007–2008 there were 35 Lithuanian schools in the USA. The more active cooperation of the teachers of emigrant schools with Lithuanian institutions responsible for the activities of the Lithuanians all over the world – Department for National Minorities and Emigrants and Ministry of Education – raise our hopes. There also has increased the number of schools in the USA in which work the graduates from Lithuanian universities. [From the publication]

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2018-12-17 12:21:33
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