Rengiamųjų skulptūrų tradicija Lietuvoje XVII-XX a.

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Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Rengiamųjų skulptūrų tradicija Lietuvoje XVII-XX a
Alternative Title:
Tradition of dressed sculpture in Lithuania 17th-20th centuries
In the Journal:
Kultūros paminklai. 2009, 14, p. 137-151
Keywords:
LT
Bažnytinė dailė; Lietuvos dailė XVII-XX a.; Rengiamosios skulptūros; Tekstilė; Votas; Laiudies dailė; Sevilijos mokykla; Loreto Švč. Mergelė Marija; Nukryžiuotojo skulptūra; Jėzus Nazarietis (Antakalnio Kristus); Rūpintojėlis; Jėzus prie stulpo; Votai.
EN
Scupture; Religion art; Lithuanian art 17-20 th c.; Dressed sculpture; Textile; Votum..
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje, pasitelkus archyvinius ir etnografinius šaltinius, bažnytinės ir religinės liaudies dailės pavyzdžius, nagrinėjami nuo XVI a. pab. visoje Europoje paplitusios skulptūrų rengimo tradicijos atgarsiai Lietuvos kultūroje. Rengiamųjų skulptūrų tradicija Lietuvoje vystėsi įtakota Europoje vykusių reiškinių. Tai susiję su potridentinės dailės įsigalėjimu. Aprengiamųjų skulptūrų tradiciją LDK pirmiausiai nužymi iš Italijos vežamų arba vietoje daromų Loreto Švč. Mergelės Marijos statulų rengimas. Kita grupė skulptūrų, kurios XVII–XVIII a. labai dažnai buvo dengiamos papildomais medžiaginiais apdarais, – tai Nukryžiuotojo skulptūros. XVII–XIX a. Lietuvoje buvo rengiamos ir kitos Kristaus asmenį vaizduojančios skulptūros (Vaikelis Jėzus, Rūpintojėlis, Jėzus prie stulpo, Ecce Homo, Kristus kalėjime, Antakalnio Jėzus (Jėzus Nazarietis). Taip kaip ir visoje potridentinėje Europoje formuojasi atskiri ikonografiniai tipai. Atkeliavęs iš kitų kraštų paprotys rengti skulptūrą giliai įsitvirtino Lietuvoje ir išsilaikė čia iki pat XXI amžiaus. Ypač šis reiškinys būdingas Žemaitijai. Paprotys ant Nukryžiuotojo skulptūrų rišti prijuostėles įsitvirtindamas tarp valstietijos veikiausiai transformavosi į paprotį jas rišti ant kryžių. Skulptūrų rengimo tradicija artima XVII a. pr. Lietuvoje ir Lenkijoje išplitusiam šventų paveikslų dekoravimui metalo aptaisais. Šių reiškinių artumas nusakomas ne tik tuo, kad jie daugiausiai egzistavo kaip voto forma, bet ir tuo, kad metaliniai aptaisai dažnai atlikdavo „rūbo“ funkciją (bažnytiniuose dokumentuose aptaisas vadinamas „sukienka“ (suknele). [Iš leidinio]

EN[...] Tradition of dressed sculpture in Europe has been known since the second half of the 16th century. [...] Tradition of dressed sculpture in Lithuania developed under the influence of events that took place in Europe. That was related to strengthening of post-Tridentine art, and was one of the features of Baroque culture. Tradition of dressed sculpture in Grand Duchy of Lithuania is primarily marked by dressing of the sculptures of Blessed Virgin Mary of Loreto imported from Italy or made locally (sculptures that were in Vilnius St. John's, Stvolovichi, Anilovichi, Rasos, Telšiai Bernadines', Valkininkai Franciscans' and other churches). Another group of sculptures that often were covered with additional fabric dresses in 17th- 8th centuries were sculptures of crucified Christ. This tradition was particularly noticeable in the Diocese of Vilnius, although separate samples were found in Samogitia. Other sculptures depicting the person of Christ (Infant Baby Jesus, Christ in Distress, Jesus at the pillar, Ecce Homo, Christ in prison, Antakalnis Jesus (Jesus of Nazareth)) were also dressed in Lithuania in the 17th-19th centuries. In general, the sculptures depicting Jesus' person have been dressed throughout Europe since the 17th century. Thus, separate iconographie types were formed. This process is related to the specifics of post-Tridentine art - the wish to bring plots of religious art as close as possible to evangelical events.The custom taken over from other countries to dress sculptures established deeply and survived until the 21st century. This phenomenon is particularly characteristic to Samogitia. Dressed religious folk art sculptures are quite often in this region. Thus, this phenomenon of post-Tridentine art found a resonance in the folk sculpture and established there for a long time. Perhaps, the custom to tie up aprons on the sculptures of crucified Christ, when entrenched among peasants, transformed into the custom to tie up aprons around crosses. Tradition of sculpture dressing, resembling decoration of saint pictures with metal casings, widely spread in Lithuania and Poland, formed at the end of the 17th century only. It shall be noted that this phenomenon in Lithuania is clearly related to votive intentions, and in many cases existed as a form of votive offering. Similarity of sculpture dressing and covering of pictures with metal casings was not just that both casings and clothes usually were votive offerings, but also that casings often performed functions of dresses. Even in ecclesiastical documents, casing is identified by the term 'sukienka' (a dress). There were some cases, when pictures had fabric casings, instead of metal ones. In the same way, as votive offerings depicting certain diseased or cured body parts were sacrificed in the church to pictures or sculptures famous for their mercies, offerings to "miraculous" folk art sculptures were targeted by the type of disease. [From the publication]

ISSN:
1392-155X
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Updated:
2018-12-17 12:28:35
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