Folklorinės holokausto refleksijos

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Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Folklorinės holokausto refleksijos
Alternative Title:
Folkloric reflections of holocaust
In the Journal:
Tautosakos darbai [Folklore Studies]. 2009, 37, p. 148-161
Keywords:
LT
žydo įvaizdis; holokaustas; folklorinė patirtis; individuali patirtis; naratyvas.
EN
Jew image; folkloric experience; individual experience holocaust; narrative; image of Jew; holocaust; folkloristic experience; individual experience.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnio objektas – įvairūs naratyvai, susieti holokausto tema plačiąja prasme. Daugiausia naudojamasi keleto pastarųjų metų (2006–2008) Lietuvių literatūros ir tautosakos instituto folkloro ekspedicijų medžiaga. Darbo tikslas – apžvelgti, kaip žodinėje tradicijoje, pasitelkus folklorinę patirtį, apmąstoma per Antrąjį pasaulinį karą žydų tautą ištikusi tragedija. Anot straipsnio autorės, keleto pastarųjų metų folklorinių ekspedicijų duomenys rodo, kad po Antrojo pasaulinio karo žodinėje tradicijoje formavosi "nauja mitologija" apie etninius kaimynus, kurių jau nebeliko. Po holokausto tradicinės kultūros atstovų folklorinė mitologinė kompetencija krypo tragedijos apmąstymo linkme. Viena vertus, kaip teigia straipsnio autorė, galima stebėti, kaip buvo plėtojami folklorinėje tradicijoje įsigalėję stereotipai. Taip, pasitelkus vadinamąsias kraujo legendas, holokaustas aiškinamas kaip Dievo bausmė žydams už Kristaus nužudymą ar krikščionių kraujo vartojimą ritualiniais tikslais; mitologinės pasaulėžiūros raiška laikytini ir priešprieša "savas – svetimas" paremti tikėjimai, susiejantys žydus su magija ir burtais. Antra vertus, anot straipsnio autorės, etninė ir konfesinė takoskyra sumažinama iki minimumo ar apskritai panaikinama individualiuose pasakojimuose. Individualiuose žmonių prisiminimuose, kaip praeities įvykių liudijimuose, išryškėjusios "locus communis" atskleidžia kitą Dievo bausmės temos eksploatavimo aspektą – ji projektuojama ne žydų, o su jų žudynėmis siejamų žmonių kryptimi.

ENDue to the ideological prerequisites, research on the foreigners and people of other faiths as "the other" started appearing in Lithuanian humanities as late as at the end of the 20t h century. One is particularly cautious when addressing the especially sensitive topic made even more painful by the tragic historical events, namely, the mythologically very colourful figure of traditional culture - the Jew. In humanities, the image of the Jew is most commonly addressed in terms of the universal semantic opposition the own vs. the other while analysis is usually based on materials collected in the 19th-first half of the 20th century. Still, according to the data accumulated during the most recent fieldwork sessions, a "new mythology" started shaping itself in the oral tradition after the World War II, focusing on the former ethnic neighbours that had become extinct. After the holocaust, folkloric and mythological competence of representatives of the traditional culture gravitated towards reflections of the tragedy. Research of this process is not available yet, and even materials for such investigations were hardly ever purposefully collected. The author of the article, wishing to attract scholarly attention to such an interesting topic and to encourage further collection of the most relevant folklore materials, strives to reveal reflections of the Jewish tragedy in the oral tradition. The subject of analysis comprises various narratives related by the theme of holocaust in the broad sense.Essentially, data recorded in the course of the folklore fieldwork sessions of the recent years (2006-2008) by the researchers of the Institute of Lithuanian Literature and Folklore, is made use of. In the course of reflection on the Jewish tragedy, on the one hand, the entrenched stereotypes of the folkloric tradition were further cultivated. Thus, by referring to the so-called "blood-legends", the holocaust used to be explained as a God's punishment to the Jews for murdering of Christ and for making use of the Christian blood for ritual purposes. Popular beliefs relating Jews with magic and sorcery are regarded as being based on the opposition the own vs. the other and considered to be an expression of the mythological worldview. On the other hand, certain individual narratives tend to diminish or minimize the ethnic and confessional borderline up to erasing it entirely. Such stories are also examined in this article in order to present more complex view of the reflections of the tragedy in the oral tradition. Certain common motives discerned in these individual narratives and memoirs reveal quite another treatment of the God's punishment theme: the divine wrath is projected not onto the Jews, but on the Persons responsible for the massacre. While in attempting to find an explanation for the holocaust as destiny, the classical folklore genres are resorted to: appropriate storylines, beliefs, or divinations are modified and adapted to suit the definite situation at hand. [From the publication]

ISSN:
1392-2831
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Updated:
2018-12-17 12:27:40
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