Jurgio Ambraziejaus Pabrėžos biblioteka: medicinos ir farmacijos knygų rinkinys

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Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Jurgio Ambraziejaus Pabrėžos biblioteka: medicinos ir farmacijos knygų rinkinys
Alternative Title:
Jurgis Ambraziejus Pabrėža's library: a collection of medical and pharmaceutical books
In the Journal:
Acta historica universitatis Klaipedensis [AHUK]. 2022, t. 43, p. 21-47. Defeating disease in the changing society of the Southeast Baltic from the 18th to the 20th century = Ligų įveika besikeičiančioje Pietryčių Baltijos visuomenėje: XVIII-XX amžiai
Keywords:
LT
18 amžius; Lietuva Rusijos imperijos sudėtyje (1795 – 1915).
Summary / Abstract:

LTKunigas pranciškonas Jurgis Ambraziejus Pabrėža (1771–1849) didžiąją gyvenimo dalį praleido Rusijos imperijos vakaruose, per trečiąjį Abiejų Tautų Respublikos padalijimą 1795 m. prijungtoje Žemaitijoje. Be to, kad buvo garsus pamokslininkas ir švietėjas, J. A. Pabrėža laikomas lietuviškos botanikos terminijos (vartojamos ir šiandien) pradininku, jis žinomas ir kaip liaudies gydytojas bei bibliofilas. J. A. Pabrėžos knygų rinkinys daugeliu požiūrių yra įdomi to laiko asmeninė biblioteka, atstovaujanti pranciškoniškajai knygos kultūrai. Straipsnyje, remiantis išlikusiomis knygomis ir archyviniais šaltiniais, nagrinėjamos J. A. Pabrėžos asmeninės bibliotekos medicinos ir farmacijos rinkinio kaupimo paskatos, komplektavimo šaltiniai, sudėtis ir tematika, išsklaidymas ir migracija, aptariami neišlikusios dalies istorinio-bibliografinio atkūrimo rezultatai. Pagrindinės kunigo pranciškono J. A. Pabrėžos medicinos ir farmacijos knygų rinkinio kaupimo paskatos buvo gydymo praktika ir teorinių šviečiamųjų sveikatos priežiūrai skirtų darbų rengimas, tarsi atliepas į skurstančių Žemaitijos gyventojų reikmes. Carinėje Rusijoje daugelis gyventojų, ypač paprasti kaimo žmonės, negaudavo nei sveikatos priežiūros, nei farmacininkų paslaugų. J. A. Pabrėža didelę savo gyvenimo dalį paskyrė medicinos praktikai, dėl to ji darėsi prieinamesnė socialinės rizikos grupių visuomenės nariams. Pagrindiniai žodžiai: Lenkija ir Lietuva po padalijimų, Žemaitija, pranciškonų švietėjai, asmeninė biblioteka, medicina, farmacija. [Iš leidinio]

ENThe most important work by the Franciscan priest Jurgis Ambraziejus Pabrėža is considered the systematic botanical work "Taislius augyminis" (1843), the largest botanical work in the history of Lithuanian science in the whole of the 19th century. He also authored the first geography textbook in the Žemaitijan (Samogitian) language "Įžęgis Geograpyje (Žemiuraszts) ira apraszims žemys" (1831–1834), left large collections of sermons, and also medical and pharmaceutical works, and created a system for Žemaitijan (Samogitian) grammar and writing by standardising the Žemaitijan dialects. One of the few personal libraries in Žemaitija (Samogitia) at the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries, Pabrėža’s collection was in many ways one of the most interesting. Owned by a renowned preacher, a folk healer and a botanist, it also represented Franciscan book culture. By creating a universal library, he contributed to many fields of scientific and metaphysical knowledge about the world. This library, however, has not yet been the subject of comprehensive research. The article presents research into book history that analyses for the first time the motivations behind the creation of Pabreža’s personal library, its content, its use, its value and its history. The library is now dispersed, so complex methods of physical, virtual, intellectual and bibliographical reconstruction, and the critical analysis of sources and provenance, had to be used to provide the fullest possible picture of the library. The research first attempted to identify and register books scattered in various Lithuanian institutions and personal collections, including Vilnius University Library, Kaunas District Public Library, the National Martynas Mažvydas Library of Lithuania, Kaunas University of Technology Library, and Kretinga Museum.After the priest’s death in 1849, almost all the books in his personal library were left to the library of the Kretinga Bernardine friary according to his will. However, in 1940 and 1941, the Soviet authorities confiscated most of the more valuable part of Pabrėža’s personal library. The rest was damaged by a fire in Kretinga in 1941, and only a few items were hidden. The volumes nationalised by the Soviet authorities were first transferred to the library of Vytautas Magnus University, before being dispersed among different Lithuanian libraries after 1950. The research has allowed us to identify 195 books which belonged to Pabrėža’s personal library, of which items on religion and theology comprised 46.6%, medicine and pharmacy 18%, botany 14%, and history, geography, chemistry, maps, fiction and school textbooks the remaining 21.4%. Of these, the article discusses 42 volumes among the surviving items on medicine and pharmaceutics (ten volumes have not survived and are based on sources). The article concludes that Pabrėža devoted a large part of his life to the practice of medicine, and soon became famous in Žemaitija as a folk healer. The medical care he provided was available to poor people who did not have access to public health-care services or pharmacists in tsarist Russia.The medical and pharmaceutical literature he collected was to be used in a functional way: the knowledge collected in the books had to be applied usefully for the provision of medical treatment, prescriptions, the manufacture of medicines and the production of original works in the field. The library contains works on medical theory (physiology [anatomy], pathology, semiotics), and medical practice (hygiene [public education and prophylaxis], therapeutics [dietetics, surgery, pharmacy]). It was found that the library was built up by means of exchange, purchases, subscriptions, gifts, and a circle of acquaintances. Pabrėža consistently marked the price of the publications in his books, which reveals some features of book acquisition in 19th-century Lithuania. Keywords: post-partition Poland-Lithuania, Žemaitija, Franciscan enlighteners, personal library, medicine, pharmacy. [From the publication]

DOI:
10.15181/ahuk.v43i0.2487
ISSN:
1392-4095; 2351-6526
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https://www.lituanistika.lt/content/99709
Updated:
2023-03-14 19:49:35
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