Biržų pilies statinių architektūra ir jos raida

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Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Biržų pilies statinių architektūra ir jos raida
Alternative Title:
Architecture of the buildings of the Biržai castle and its development
In the Journal:
Acta Academiae Artium Vilnensis [AAAV]. 2020, t. 97, p. 304-378. Dvarų kultūra: erdvės, istorija, kultūros paveldas
Keywords:
LT
Biržų pilis; Istorija; Architektūros tyrimai; Restauravimas; Atkūrimas; Paveldas.
EN
Biržai castle; History; Architectural research; Conservation; Restoration; Heritage.
Summary / Abstract:

LTNuo pirmosios Biržų pilies pastatymo 1586–1589 m. šį reprezentacinį ansamblį plėtė ir įvairiai perstatinėjo penkios Radvilų kartos: Kristupas I (1586–1589), Kristupas II (1627–1640), Jonušas (1640–1655), Boguslavas (1661–1669), Liudvika Karolina (apie 1681–1686). Po pilies žūties 1704 m. praėjus 300 metų, galime kalbėti apie naują, iki šiol besitęsiantį pilies statinių architektūros raidos etapą. Jame ypatingą reikšmę įgavo senųjų statinių liekanų tyrimas ir išsaugojimas, buvusios architektūros ir jos konstrukcijų atkūrimas, autentiškų mūrų liekanų eksponavimas. Straipsnyje, remiantis istoriografine ir autoriaus sukaupta architektūros tyrimų bei ansamblio restauravimo ir atkūrimo medžiaga, pateikiamas išsamus Biržų pilies architektūros ir jos kaitos vaizdas. Daugelis išvadų daroma remiantis ilgamete darbų prie Biržų pilies ansamblio patirtimi. [Iš leidinio]

ENFrom the construction of the first Biržai Castle in 1586–1589, this representational ensemble was expanded and rebuilt by five generations of the Radziwiłł family: Krzysztof I (1586–1589), Krzysztof II (1627–1640), Janusz (1640–1655), Bogusław (1661–1669), and Ludwika Karolina (ca. 1681– 1686). Krzysztof II Radziwiłł restructured the castle’s fortifications built by Krzysztof I Radziwiłł according to the model of Italian bastion forts into Dutchtype fortifications, but he did not finish building all structures necessary for the functioning of the castle before his death. One of the major projects of Janusz Radziwiłł who continued the works was starting to build a palace designed by J. Ulrich. The composition of the buildings in the castle’s courtyard must have taken shape at that time as well. The size of the palace walls determined the composition of the structures built in the courtyard later, as well as the final view of the palace architecture, which was corrected while the works were already in progress. The buildings in the courtyard were built or reconstructed by Bogusław Radziwiłł’s builders according to a new castle plan corrected by T. Spinowski in 1661–1669. Barracks and powder houses were built, the gate house was expanded, and the palace and the arsenal were roofed. Unfortunately, like the previous owners, Bogusław did not live long enough to see the finished castle. His daughter Ludwika Karolina mostly took care of the palace interiors, which remained unfinished until the castle was destroyed. The larger part of the rooms in the left avant-corps were not even plastered. Historical research and excavations provide the most information about the buildings constructed by Bogusław Radziwiłł, the height of the façades of the palace designed by J. Ulbricht, and an attic of a quite complex structure designed above the two-storey palace.In the final stage of the construction, it was planned to build vaults over more rooms, and there were hesitations if the second floor should be built above the entire building or only above the avantcorps. There are remaining traces of restructuring the stairways, while the thicker walls of the avant-corps at the top testify to the transformation of the attics into the second floor. 300 years after the destruction of the castle in 1704, we can talk about the new, sixth stage of the development of the architecture of the castle’s buildings from 1955 until today. The tracing, research and preservation of the old buildings, the restoration of their former architecture and its constructions has become very important. We learn from historical sources about the huge significance of a large number of projects prepared by architects in the construction of the buildings in all periods. Sometimes, scale models were also used. The work of collecting the material for this article showed how much we already know about the architecture of the castle’s buildings and how much remains to be discovered. What needs to be done is more consistently looking for new documents, rereading the known documents, even those held in our archives. Time has come to conduct improvement works on the defensive ramparts, the gate building and the barracks, to explore and clean the moat. The redoubt is also waiting for research and improvement. [From the publication]

ISBN:
9786094473128
ISSN:
1392-0316
Related Publications:
  • 50 metų Biržų pilies restauracijai / Evaldas Purlys. XVI-XVII a. koklinės krosnys šiauriniame Lietuvos Didžiosios Kunigaikštystės paribyje : konferencijos medžiaga / sudarytoja Deimantė Prunskienė. Kaunas: Žiemgalos leidykla, 2006. P. 102-119, 134-135.
  • Biržų pilis ir miesto įtvirtinimai / Jonas Genys, Arūnas Baublys. Lietuvos pilių archeologija / sudarytojai Jonas Genys, Vladas Žulkus. Klaipėda: Klaipėdos universiteto leidykla, 2001. P. 199-228.
  • Lietuvos dailininkų žodynas. T. 1, XVI-XVIII a. / sudarytoja ir atsakomoji redaktorė Aistė Paliušytė. Vilnius : Kultūros, filosofijos ir meno institutas, 2005. 311 p.
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2021-02-17 10:23:26
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