XV–XVI a. bajorų gyvenamieji pastatai: architektūros pobūdis ir kaita

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
XV–XVI a. bajorų gyvenamieji pastatai: architektūros pobūdis ir kaita
Alternative Title:
Residential buildings of nobles in the 15th–16th century: the nature of their architecture and its development
In the Journal:
Acta Academiae Artium Vilnensis [AAAV]. 2020, t. 97, p. 156-192. Dvarų kultūra: erdvės, istorija, kultūros paveldas
16 amžius; Architektūra / Architecture; Bajorai, didikai ir magnatai / Nobles and magnates; Dvarai / Manors.
Summary / Abstract:

LTPasitelkus XVI a. antros pusės inventoriuose aprašomų pastatų struktūrose ir formose užkoduotas tradicinės vietinės medinės statybos ir iš kitų kraštų atklydusias architektūrines žymes, istorijai ir architektūrai skirtus šaltinius, mokslinę literatūrą, straipsnyje nagrinėjama XV–XVI a. bajorų gyvenamųjų pastatų struktūrų raida, aptariami architektūros bruožai. [Iš leidinio]Reikšminiai žodžiai: Medinė architektūra; XV–XVI a. bajorų gyvenamieji pastatai; Dvarų sodybos; Dvarų kultūra; Wooden architecture; 15th–16th century residential buildings of nobles; Manor estates; Manor culture.

ENIn the 15th–16th centuries, the social, economic and cultural shifts that took place as part of the integration of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania into European structures inspired changes in the structure of manor estates and buildings. The article addresses the development of the structure of residential buildings of nobles in the 15th and 16th century, and discusses their general architectural features. The research is based on the analysis of buildings described in the inventories from the second half of the 16th century, early architectural traces that it has revealed, and an interpretation of the sources and literary facts related to the history, architecture and lifestyle of the nobility. Due to the scarcity of sources, the ideas proposed here are for the larger part tentative (hypothetical). In the 15th–16th century, the archaic structure of a residential space consisting of several buildings prevailed in wealthy manors. It was formed in pre-Christian Lithuania and reflected the structure of a noble community related by family ties. The estates mostly had wooden buildings, which were traditional in Lithuania. The life of the nobles and their families was centred in a building meant for gatherings (the great living room, later called “the house of tables”), and several private buildings used for living and sleeping. In the 15th–16th century, because of the close ties with Central and Western European nobles, the mentality and lifestyle of the noble class in Lithuania was changing. All that, as well as the development of the construction methods and techniques, inspired the evolution of types, planning and forms of residential buildings. Due to ceremonial requirements, buildings became more complex.The tradition of the residential structure of several buildings survived in the estates up until the middle 17th century. The tenacity of this tradition might have been determined by rational solutions (building quality, investments into architecture and equipment) and the features of wooden architecture (aesthetic and technological features of wooden constructions). There is hardly any data about the size of buildings, the forms of small-scale architecture and décor that would allow to describe them. However, considering the professionalism of woodworkers (in 1566, in the Second Statute of Lithuania, a carpenter was equalled to an architect) and the aim of aristocrats to show off their riches, we can guess that already in the late 15th–16th century, quite simple planning structures were compensated by the size and decorativeness of the buildings. It is quite likely that building décor combined ornaments typical of Eastern and Western cultures, and at the beginning of the period, ornaments attributable to the Baltic tradition must have existed as well. [From the publication]

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2021-02-15 12:11:02
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