Lietuvos bedarbių profilis – socialiniai ir edukaciniai aspektai. Tarptautinio suaugusiųjų kompetencijų tyrimo EBPO PIAAC perspektyva

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Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Lietuvos bedarbių profilis – socialiniai ir edukaciniai aspektai. Tarptautinio suaugusiųjų kompetencijų tyrimo EBPO PIAAC perspektyva
Alternative Title:
Profile of unemployed people in Lithuania – social and educational aspects. Perspective of the international OECD PIAAC study on adult competences
In the Journal:
Socialinis darbas [Social Work]. 2020, t. 18, Nr. 2, p. 50-64
Keywords:
LT
Bedarbiai; Socialinis profilis; Edukacinis profilis; PIAAC.
EN
Unemployed; Social profile; Educational profile; PIAAC.
Summary / Abstract:

LTŠiame straipsnyje nagrinėjamos Lietuvos statistinio bedarbio socialinės ir edukacinės charakteristikos. Bedarbystė yra viena didžiausių, sunkiai sprendžiamų problemų pasaulyje. Ilgą laiką darbo neturintys gyventojai netenka savo įgytų profesinių gebėjimų, tampa labiau socialiai ir psichologiškai pažeidžiami, patenka į socialinę atskirtį bei skurdo pavojų, dėl patiriamo streso jiems gali pablogėti sveikata, keistis mąstymas, mažėti pasitikėjimas savimi bei silpnėti motyvacija ieškotis darbo. Nedarbas dažniausiai įvardijamas kaip pagrindinė Lietuvos darbo rinkos problema ir yra apibūdinamas kaip situacija, kai dalis darbingo amžiaus žmonių norėtų ir galėtų dirbti, tačiau neranda darbo. Lietuvoje yra atlikta nemažai tyrimų užimtumo klausimais, tačiau stinga darbų, kuriuose būtų nagrinėjamos bedarbių charakteristikos ir jos lyginamos su darbą turinčių asmenų charakteristikomis. Ypač trūksta darbų, tyrinėjančių edukacines bedarbių charakteristikas. Straipsnio tyrimo tikslas – aprašyti Lietuvos bedarbio profilį socialiniu ir edukaciniu aspektu. Siekiant šio tikslo analizei panaudoti EBPO organizacijos vykdomo Tarptautinio suaugusiųjų kompetencijų tyrimo PIAAC duomenys, kurie leidžia pamatuoti darbinio amžiaus asmenų užimtumo klausimus ir surinkti duomenis apie jų socialines bei edukacines charakteristikas. Anot straipsnyje pateiktos rezultatų analizės, statistinis Lietuvos bedarbis yra 45–54 metų vyras, gyvenantis kaime arba mažame miestelyje, dažniau prastesnės sveikatos nei dirbantysis, turintis du vaikus, jo namų ūkį dažniausiai sudaro trys asmenys, dažniau nei kiti yra linkęs į gyvenimą be partnerio, o jei gyvena su partneriu, jo partneris, dažniau nei dirbančiųjų atveju, yra taip pat bedarbis.Lietuvos statistinis bedarbis yra įgijęs vidurinį arba I–III pakopos profesinį išsilavinimą, jei mokėsi profesijos, tai greičiausiai buvo inžinerijos, gamybos ir statybos srities specialybė, jo namuose paprastai bus mažiau knygų, negu dirbančiojo namuose, ir jo raštingumas yra ženkliai prastesnis, nei asmens, turinčio darbą. [Iš leidinio]

ENThis article examines the social and educational characteristics of the statistical unemployed person in Lithuania. Unemployment is one of the biggest, most difficult problems in the world. The declining employment of people of working age who can support disadvantaged sections of society poses significant economic and social challenges to the commonwealth. The long-term unemployed people lose their acquired professional skills, become more socially and psychologically vulnerable, are at risk of social exclusion and poverty, and due to stress they may experience deterioration of health, changes in thinking, decreasing of self-confidence and motivation to seek for a job. According to the data of August 1, 2020, published by the Department of Statistics of Lithuania, 12.8 percent the country’s working-age population was unemployed. It was the highest registered unemployment rate in eight years in Lithuania. Unemployment is usually identified as the main problem of the Lithuanian labor market and is described as a situation where part of the working age people would like and be able to work, but cannot find a job. Although dictionaries and scholarly works provide different interpretations of the concept of unemployment, scholars agree that unemployment is a socioeconomic phenomenon in which part of the population who are able and willing to work is unable to do so. Unemployment can be caused by both objective and subjective reasons. A number of studies have been conducted on employment issues in Lithuania, but there is a lack of work that analyzes the characteristics of the unemployed people and do comparison with the characteristics of employed people. There is a particular lack of research on the educational characteristics of the unemployed. The aim of the research of the article is to describe the profile of the Lithuanian unemployed person in social and educational aspects.To achieve this goal, the data of the International Adult Competences Survey PIAAC conducted by the OECD (The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) were used for the analysis, which allows to measure the employment issues of working age people and to collect data on their social and educational characteristics. The OECD PIAAC survey is currently the largest world-class survey of adult competencies and the socio-educational factors that have relation with those competencies. PIAAC covers almost 40 countries, including Lithuania, and was conducted in 2012-2015. Lithuanian data were collected in 2015. The age range of PIAAC respondents is from 16 to 65 years. These are people of working age. Lithuanian sample: 5093 respondents from all 10 counties and different types of settlements. The database of Lithuanian PIAAC cognitive tests and the block of variables addressed to the topic of unemployment of the background questionnaire was used for the analysis. The analysis was performed by descriptive statistics methods. According to the analysis of the results presented in the article, the statistical unemployed person in Lithuania is a man aged 45–54, living in a village or small town, more often in poorer health than an employed person, have two children, his household usually consists of three people, more often than others he is tending to live without a partner. If he lives with a partner, his partner, more often than in the case of working people, is also unemployed. The statistical Lithuanian unemployed person has a secondary or I–III level vocational education, if he has profession, it is probably in a field of engineering, production or construction. In home he would usually have fewer books than people having a job, and his literacy is significantly lower than that of a person having a job. [From the publication]

ISSN:
1648-4789; 2029-2775
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https://www.lituanistika.lt/content/90984
Updated:
2021-02-15 20:50:44
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