Naujieji metai

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Knygos dalis / Part of the book
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Naujieji metai
Alternative Title:
New Year
Reikšminiai žodžiai: Šventės; Naujieji metai; Tradicijos; Valgiai; Dovanos; Etninės grupės; Tyrimai; Holidays; New Year; Traditions; Meals; Gifts; Ethnic groups; Research; Lithuania.
Šventės ištakos ir tyrimai Lietuvoje — Etninė ir konfesinė šventės specifika — Šventės dalyviai ir vieta — Šventinis stalas — Naujųjų metų spėjimai — Naujųjų metų tradicijos — Šventė ritualinių metų struktūroje — Išvados — Literatūra — The New Year (summary).
Dovanos; Etninės mažumos. Tautinės mažumos / Ethnic minorities. National minorities; Maistas. Kulinarija. Mityba / Food. Cooking. Nutrition; Naujieji metai; Šventės; Tyrimai; Tradicijos.
Ethnic groups; Gifts; Holidays; Year; Meals; Research; Traditions.
Summary / Abstract:

LTNaujieji metai - vienintelė šventė, Lietuvoje buvusi nedarbo diena tiek Nepriklausomoje Lietuvos Respublikoje tarpukariu (ir Lenkijos okupuotoje Lietuvos dalyje) bei sovietinėje Lietuvoje, tiek ir atkūrus nepriklausomą Lietuvos valstybę. Sovietų Sąjungoje tai buvo vienintelė šventė, neturėjusi aiškios ideologinės reikšmės (Sedakova 2008: 53). Šis faktas rodo, kad Naujieji metai turėjo daugiau pasaulietinę negu religinę prasmę. Tačiau pažvelgus į jų papročius matyti, kad ši šventė tarsi atkartoja Kūčių ritualus, o nagrinėdami lietuvių ir daugelio kitų gretimų krikščioniškų tautų ritualinius metus, pastebėsime, kad Naujieji metai tarsi atsiduria nuo Kalėdų iki Trijų karalių trunkančio tarpušvenčio laikotarpio centre. [Iš straipsnio, p. 76]

ENThe New Year is the only feast that was a Lithuanian public holiday in the independent Republic of Lithuania between the great wars (including territory, occupied by Poland), in Soviet Lithuania, and in the restored independent state of Lithuania. Chronological proximity of the New Year to Christmas in the structure of the ritual year, and special attention given to the occasion in the historical perspective, allowed the formation of certain family traditions of this feast. In this chapter we are focusing on the objective to reveal ethnic and cultural peculiarities of the New Year's festivities, aiming to reveal the composition of the participants, location of the celebration, the festive table, and the New Year's traditions maintained in the families, as well as its customs and rituals. The respondents were asked to list family members and other persons with who they were together celebrating the New Year this last year; where this celebration took place; who prepared the festive table; what kind of meals were served at the table, focusing on those that were prepared for this specific occasion; how the arrival of the midnight was marked; what were the traditions of celebrating the New Year, religious components common to this celebration and family maintained traditions; where, how and with who the first day of a new year was celebrated. Pupils and senior people were also asked when, on 1 January or 14 January, was the New Year celebrated in the family of the respondent. The study has shown, that almost half of the pupils from the school, where majority of the subjects are taught in Russian, and most of the elderly people, celebrate the New Year both on 1 January and 14 January.However, the Russian Old New Year is celebrated more modestly, since in most cases this is a working day, in addition to that the eve of the celebration is not an appropriate occasion for the public festivities of this celebration (13 January - a day of national memorial for the Lithuanians). Therefore, even though 1 January for the Orthodox and the Old Believers is a period of Lent, this particular celebration receives more emphasis. The Russians tend to celebrate the New Year at home, whereas the Lithuanians and the Poles - visiting friends or in the public spaces. Pupils from these ethnic groups also tend to celebrate this day with their families. They also tend to meet the midnight in closed spaces, whereas Lithuanians and Poles prefer celebrating arrival of the midnight outdoors. In our analysis of the first day of a new year we could not distinguish any ethnic peculiarities. Representatives of all ethnic groups, after having celebrated this day in the city tend to spend the first day of a new year at home. It might be possible to say, that in this case the emphasis is on the eve of the celebration (as is in the case of Christmas or St John's), whereas the actual celebratory day is dedicated to the "resting from the celebration". After analysis of the festive table according to the food categories it came to the fore, that the majority of all respondents of all ethnicities emphasized the category of alcoholic and fizzy drinks. It was reported by the absolute majority of the respondents. The Polish respondents also singled out meat products, yet to the Lithuanians and the Russians it was less important, giving priority to vegetable dishes. After analysis of the New Year's foretelling custom, it is possible to say that people of various ethnicities still give the New Year special meaning. On the other hand, it is difficult to say to what extent do people actually believe in it.In this exposition of the New Year's celebration by the Vilnians of several ethnicities we have established a diversity of family customs, and it is more significant than the ethnic differences.In the course of their participation in this boundary celebration of the year, the participants seek to spend some time "at home", among their closest people, to uphold family traditions or to create new ones. The celebration links into a common group not only people that are present to take part in it. Due to modern technologies, the possibility of greeting relatives or friends allows the expansion of the concept of "celebrating together" and creating a "global home". Depending on a situation, in a poly-confessional environment such feast can pool people from one ethnic group and form a feeling of ethnic identity, however, when part of the members of community is in mixed families, and celebration is taking place together with friends, neighbours or co-workers from other ethnic groups, such opportunities are withering away. The research has shown that religion does have a bearing on this secular celebration (even if indirect). In comparing customs of the Lithuanians, the Polish and the Russians, we see that people of Russian ethnicity give more emphasis to the New Year. Since in the families of the Orthodox and the Old Believers there is less emphasis on Christmas Eve in comparison with Catholics, for the young people the New Year often becomes the most important family celebration despite the fact, that according to their religious calendar it's Lent. However, in spite of the Russian celebrated Old New Year, or celebration of the New Year following the Moscow time, any ethnic peculiarity of this day is not clearly expressed and signified by the people. [From the publication]

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2022-01-19 08:12:26
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