Lietuvos mažesniųjų brolių konventualų provincijos kolektyvinis portretas (XVIII a. antroji pusė - XIX a. pradžia)

Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Knygos dalis / Part of the book
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Lietuvos mažesniųjų brolių konventualų provincijos kolektyvinis portretas (XVIII a. antroji pusė - XIX a. pradžia)
Alternative Title:
Collective portrait of the Lithuanian order of Friars Minor Conventual (late eighteenth-early nineteenth century)
In the Book:
Lietuvos Didžioji Kunigaikštystė : luomas, pašaukimas, užsiėmimas / sudarytoja Ramunė Šmigelskytė-Stukienė. Vilnius: Lietuvos istorijos institutas, 2019. P. 44-66. (XVIII amžiaus studijos; 5)
19 amžius; 18 amžius; Lenkija (Poland); Trakai; Vilnius. Vilniaus kraštas (Vilnius region); Lietuva (Lithuania); Geografija / Geography; Socialinė istorija / Social history; Socialinė struktūra / Social structure; Vienuolijos / Monasteries.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje, naudojantis Lietuvos Didžiosios Kunigaikštystės pranciškonų konventualų nekrologu (surašytu Vilniuje), analizuojami 1775-1832 m. mirusių vienuolių duomenys: įstojusiųjų amžius, geografinė ir socialinė kilmė, leidžiantys rekonstruoti šios vienuolijos raidos dinamiką. [Iš leidinio]Reikšminiai žodžiai: Pranciškonai konventualai; Geografinė kilmė; Giminė; Bajorai; Miestiečiai; Valstiečiai; Palenkė; Lietuvos Didžioji Kunigaikštystė (LDK; Grand Duchy of Lithuania; GDL); Franciscans Conventuals; Geographic origin; Family; Nobility; Townspeople; Peasantry; Podlasie.

ENThe article analyses data of the 567 Franciscan Friars Conventual from the Lithuanian St Casimir province, who died in the period of 1775-1831: age of entry, geographic and social background. These are the factors that allow to restore the dynamics of the development of this brotherhood. Order of Friars Minor Conventual accepted individuals from 11 to 40 years of age (94.6 % of all candidates), and this was in accordance with age requirements set within the Franciscan Order. Later, when faced with the calling crisis, the brotherhood started integrating candidates of a more mature age (sometimes even 67 years old) who could become both lay brothers (Lat. laicusprofessus) and friars priests (Lat. clericusproffessus). Likewise, both groups could include married men, who were formally named as friars of the Third Order (Lat. tertiarius claustralis). Therefore, this flexibility of the brotherhood, its ability to deal with the issues of the period, ensured viability of the community. The research revealed, that sometimes the brotherhood would be “enlivened” by the inter-congregational “migration” of the friars, which was not voluminous: the Franciscan Order would be joined by friars formerly from Carthusian, Bernardine, Discalced Carmelite and Piarist orders, yet sometimes Franciscan Conventual Friars would leave for the Dominicans or the Carmelites. Such movement shows the continuous search by the “men of prayer” on the path of spiritual calling. The established presence of several converts (Uniats, Jews) in the brotherhood shows that the Franciscans did have, even if not strong, influence in towns and in the eastern part of the Grand Duchy. On the other hand, “migrant” friars and converts would enrich the brotherhood spiritually and culturally. The dominance of nobility in the brotherhood shows specific social identity of the Franciscans Conventual.This was the reason for such limited number of callings, because eastern part of the province was dominated by the Uniats and nobility was less numerous. The other side of this phenomenon was that regions of Podlasie, Mazovia and Samogitia (with only one convent in each), with a numerous presence of Roman Catholic petty nobility, have become the resource “bases” for Franciscan candidates, unlike voivodeships of Vilnius, Trakai and Polatsk with the thickest network of convents, where the number of callings was small. Very small number of candidates (out of 294), i.e. only 7%, came from the townspeople (half of them from Vilnius and the rest - from other regional towns). Around 9% of the friars were from peasantry (most of them were from the Franciscan dominions, also nearby parishes as well as further located parishes). The largest part, a whole 68%, were individuals from nobility. Such social composition was first of all defined by family relations, when after one person joining the convent others would follow, either close or more distant relatives. At the same time, attracting (recruitment) of the new members was aided by the appeal of the Franciscans, their influence in society and their devotion. In time, a peculiar symbiosis of confessional and social factors was formed, when joining the brotherhood was considered a “fashionable” factor identifying regional families, which in turn helped the formation of familial clans o f friars (the case of Podlasie). Community of the Lithuanian Order of Friars Minor Conventual, being rather closed brotherhood of “noblemen” and having socially limited and scarce number of candidates, was able to adjust to the challenges of life, which helped it to survive until the very critical period of 1863-1864. [From the publication]

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2022-01-16 14:06:01
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