Nepriklausomybės kryžiai Žemaitijoje

Direct Link:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Knygos dalis / Part of the book
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Nepriklausomybės kryžiai Žemaitijoje
Alternative Title:
Independence Crosses in Samogitia
In the Book:
Kryždirbystė Žemaitijoje / sudarytoja Teresė Jurkuvienė. Vilnius: Lietuvos liaudies kultūros centras, 2015. P. 113-130
Adomas Varnas; Vladas Nagevičius; Betygala; Biržai; Jurbarkas; Kretinga; Mažeikiai; Raseiniai; Šilalė; Šilutė; Šiluva; Tauragė; Telšiai; Varėna; Vilkaviškis; Lietuva (Lithuania); Kryžiai / Crosses; Kultūrinis identitetas / Cultural identitity.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje nagrinėjamas dar mažai tyrinėtas kryždirbystės laikotarpis, kurio pradžia laikytini 1928-ieji - pirmojo Lietuvos nepriklausomybės dešimtmečio jubiliejaus metai. Tais metais pradėta puošnių medinių jubiliejinių kryžių propagavimo ir statymo akcija. Jos iniciatorius buvo Vytauto Didžiojo karo muziejaus direktorius generolas Vladas Nagevičius, 1928 m. pradžioje tapęs ir vyriausiojo komiteto Lietuvos Nepriklausomybės dešimtmečio sukakčiai paminėti ir įamžinti pirmininku. Tai progai pastatyti puošnūs kryžiai ir kitų tipų paminklai turėjo tapti valstybės nepriklausomybės paminklais ir lietuvių nacionalinio tapatumo ženklais. [Iš leidinio]Reikšminiai žodžiai: Adomas Varnas; Kryždirbystė; Kryžių projektai; Lietuvos nepriklausomybės jubiliejus; Tautinis tapatumas; Vladas Nagevičius; Adomas Varnas; Cross projects; Cross-making; Lithuanian Independence Anniversary; National identity; Vladas Nagevičius.

ENThe article analyses a scarcely researched cross-crafting period, the beginning of which is associated with 1928, i.e. the 10th anniversary of the independence of Lithuania. That year, upon the initiative of director of the Vytautas the Great War Museum Gen. Vladas Nagevicius the campaign to promote and erect anniversary wooden crosses was launched. Encouraged by the initiative, together with his pupils artist Adomas Varnas prepared the projects of the crosses to mark the occasion and submitted them to the War Museum. The museum made replicas of the crosses and distributed them throughout Lithuania. Eight of the projects were intended for the region of Samogitia, i.e. 4 crosses, 3 pillared shrinesandl pillar-type cross. Such distribution according to the monument type corresponded to the distribution of traditional monuments in Samogitia as mostly crosses, pillared shrines and shrines were being erected there with only very few piliar-type crosses. The article focuses only on the crosses erected under the projects in the region of Samogitia. Adomas Varnas prepared the project of three double-crosses and one Latin cross for Samogitia. During the interwar period, the majority of crosses of the region of Samogitia were erected based on the project intended for the Taurage district (No,12). It was a cross with two crossbars and a shrine at the lower crossbar decorated with floral, tulip-shaped rays and the motifs of the Instruments of the Passion on the vertical arm. This was the most popular project. The crosses made according to this project were erected not only in Samogitia (the districts of Kretinga, Raseiniai, Silale, Silute and Taurage) but also in Dzukija (the Varena district).The other two double-cross projects prepared for Samogitia were intended for the Raseiniai district (No.17 and No.32). Like the above-described cross, these two crosses were also richly decorated with the aureoles of floral-patterned rays. Samogitians preferred the cross with the arm-tips embellished with little crosses. The crosses in the districts of Raseiniai and Jurbarkas were erected according to the latter project. The most renowned of them have been restored and can be found in Betygala and Siluva. Unfortunately, the crosses erected under one more project intended forthe Raseiniai district (No.32) have not been detected. The Latin cross project was dedicated to the Kretinga region (No.20). It was a cross with a four-niche shrine on its vertical arm, under the crossbar. The vertical arm and cross-arm edges were adorned with tulip motif carvings, the intersection of the cross was decorated with the aureole of small tulip motif rays and the armtips were embellished with large eight-ray rosettes. Although, such crosses were recorded in the Kretinga region at the beginning of the 20th century, the project never gained popularity in Samogitia. The crosses under the project were erected in other regions such as Aukstaitija (the Birzai district) and Suvalkija (the Vilkaviskis district). Moreover, Varnas prepared the project of a double pillar-type cross for Samogitia (No.22). Pillar-type crosses of similar construction were rather frequent in Samogitia, thus the artist basically reiterated the prototype in his project adding carved boards to the edges of a six-slope roof as well as floral motifs - a recurrent element in his works - to the pillar. The pillar-type cross project was very popular and various more or less accurate variants based on it were erected throughout Lithuania.Three pillared shrine projects were also dedicated to Samogitia. Two of them were intended for the Mazeikiai district (No. 15 and No.34) and the third one-for the Telsiai district (No.24). However, the monuments implemented under the projects have never been recorded. Most of the monuments under these projects were erected to commemorate the 10th anniversary of the independence of Lithuania in 1928. However, the crosses based on the projects were being erected not only 1928 but also later on to mark various significant historical events, organisation anniversaries or in memory of certain persons. The crosses, piliar-type crosses and pillared shrines designed in 1928 have entrenched the image of a traditional Lithuanian richly decorated monument. Even though the projects were intended for specific districts, cross builders did not always pay attention to that. As the result, the crosses dedicated to Samogitia also spread to other regions. The latter phenomenon encouraged the mixing process of the regional characteristics of monuments. On the other hand, this cross promoting campaign urged people to nurture the already dying cross-crafting tradition. [From the publication]

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2020-12-17 20:23:22
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