Architektas XVIII amžiaus Lietuvos Didžiosios Kunigaikštystės visuomenėje

Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Knygos dalis / Part of the book
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Architektas XVIII amžiaus Lietuvos Didžiosios Kunigaikštystės visuomenėje
Alternative Title:
Architect in the society of the 18th century Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Keywords:
LT
Architektai; Inžinieriai; Architektų socialinis statusas; Apšvietos epocha; Nobilitacija.
EN
Architects; Engineers; Social status of an architect; Enlightenment; Nobilitation.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje mėginama atsakyti į klausimą, koks buvo architekto profesinės veiklos laukas, jo profesijos vieta amatų, mokslų ir menų sistemoje, kokia buvo jo padėtis visuomenėje XVIII amžiuje. Grindžiama, kad architekto profesijos vertės augimo ir jo socialinio statuso kilimo raidai svarbų impulsą davė Apšvietos idėja apie valstybei bei visuomenei tarnaujantį ir jai atstovaujantį kūrėją. XVIII a. iš cechinės sistemos išsilaisvinusio architekto-kūrėjo visuomeninė ir materialinė padėtis akivaizdžiai išaugo ir sudarė prielaidas turėti privilegijų bei įsitvirtinti kilmingųjų luome. Architektų, dažniausiai turinčių ir karininko laipsnį bei įgyvendinusių reikšmingus užsakymus stambiuose dvaruose, nobilitacija ypač suintensyvėjo valstybės padalijimų laikotarpiu. [Iš leidinio]

ENThe article deals with the problem of professional field of activity of an architect, the place of his profession in the system of crafts, sciences and arts, architects’ position in the society of the eighteenth century. Before the education reform undertaken by the Education Commission, architecture had not been developed into a separate subject that provided professional training in the schools of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The course in architecture was only a part of general education in Vilnius Jesuit Academy, in nobility schools of a military type, and Jesuit and Piarist "Collegium Nobilium". There was not enough focus on architectural studies in these most important educational institutions of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania: a short course of up to two years provided only general and technical basis of the theory of architecture based on classical orders, and it was not capable of training high ranked professionals-practitioners. Until the eighties of the 18th century, to become an independent professional architect one had to continue his studies abroad. It is argued that the Enlightenment concept of a creator serving to the state and society as well as representing them has provided an important impetus to the growth of the value of the architects profession and its social status. While many eighteenth-century artists were still very close to craftsmen in terms of social status (it was considered, that they used to do specific tasks and earn a living by employing manual / physical, not intellectual / mental powers), architects, due to the specifics of their education - studies at the university and military careers (they were mostly employed as engineers) were granted titles of nobility.In the eighteenth century, the social and material position of the architect-creator, who had been liberated from the crafts guild system, had evolved considerably and created conditions for privileges and for the establishment in the rank of nobility. The nobilitation of architects, who usually also had the rank of an officer and executed significant orders in large estates, intensified especially during the period of the partitions of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Experienced architects were desired and welcome guests in the manors of the nobles. Successful architects used to invest accumulated funds in real estate and manors with land. The architect was no longer just a hired employee but became a patron himself - the one who was initiating and partly financing construction. [From the publication]

ISBN:
9786098183641
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https://www.lituanistika.lt/content/86256
Updated:
2020-12-18 11:40:16
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