Architektūros mokymas bajorų akademijose, kadetų ir inžinierių korpuso mokyklose XVIII amžiuje

Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Knygos dalis / Part of the book
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Architektūros mokymas bajorų akademijose, kadetų ir inžinierių korpuso mokyklose XVIII amžiuje
Alternative Title:
Architectural education in academies for nobles, cadet and engineers corps schools in the 18th century
Keywords:
LT
XVIII a.; Švietimo institucijos; Karo mokyklos; Architektūros mokymas
EN
18th century; Age of Enlightenment; Architectural education; Educational institutions; Military school
Summary / Abstract:

LTŠiame straipsnyje siekiama susisteminti žinias apie architektūros mokymą Lietuvos Didžiosios Kunigaikštystės bajorų akademijose (Drezdeno, Liunevilio), kadetų ir inžinierių korpusų mokyklose (Nesvyžiuje, Slucke, Gardine, Vilniuje) ir įvertinti šio mokymo XVIII a. raidą, specifiką, edukacijos būdus ir turinį. Grindžiama, jog architektūra aptartose institucijose nebuvo dėstoma sistemingai ir neturėjo kryptingos programos, šliejosi prie karinės architektūros ir tiksliųjų mokslų; vis dėlto augantis domėjimasis architektūros mokslu kaip savarankiška intelektualinės ir praktinės veiklos sritimi spartino ir architektūros kaip atskiros disciplinos įsitvirtinimą Lietuvos švietimo sistemoje. [Iš leidinio]

ENArticle aims to systematize knowledge about architectural education in the academies for the nobles of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in Dresden and Luneville, cadet and engineers corps schools in Nesvizh, Slutsk, Grodno and Vilnius as well as to evaluate the development, features and tuition methods applicable to architecture in the 18th century. Defining the level of the architecture education in the investigated institutions, it may be stated that architecture had not been developed into a separate subject that provided professional training, a short course of up to two years provided only general and technical basis of the practice and theory of architecture. The course in architecture was only a part of general education. The specialisation of the architecture courses offered by educational institutions was very broad. Most often it embraced several spheres: civil and military construction, fortification, mechanics, civil engineering, artillery and topography. Unlike in cultural centres of Western Europe (e.g. France, Germany, and Italy), professional specialisation in the science and education system was not deep in Lithuania: the spheres of engineers' and architects' activities were not distinctly separated until the 19t h century. On the other hand, new tuition methods that were inspired by the Enlightenment were being applied.The focus of the architecture curricula fell on practical and technological matters (knowledge of construction materials, constructions) and doing practical work (measuring, drawing) rather than the theoretical analysis of aesthetic issues. Under the influence of the ideas of the Enlightenment architectural education was institutionalised on all levels of the education system - the highest level of university and non-university education, and on a high school and secondary school level. Gradual institutionalisation of architectural education that took place in the 18th century laid the foundation for further development of the training process - systematic studies with definite syllabuses and for professional training of the highest - university - level in the first half of the 19th century [From the publication]

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Updated:
2018-05-21 14:55:12
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