Dailininkas XVIII amžiuje: karjeros galimybės

Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Knygos dalis / Part of the book
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Dailininkas XVIII amžiuje: karjeros galimybės
Alternative Title:
Artist in the eighteenth century: career opportunities
In the Book:
Lietuvos Didžioji Kunigaikštystė : luomas, pašaukimas, užsiėmimas / sudarytoja Ramunė Šmigelskytė-Stukienė. Vilnius: Lietuvos istorijos institutas, 2019. P. 229-253. (XVIII amžiaus studijos; 5)
Dailininkai; Lietuvos Didžioji Kunigaikštystė (LDK; Grand Duchy of Lithuania; GDL).
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje aptariama, kokias veiklos galimybes turėjo dailininkai Lietuvos Didžiojoje Kunigaikštystėje XVIII amžiuje. Siekiama parodyti, kokie veiksniai tuo metu lėmė dailininko karjerą ir vertinimą. [Iš leidinio]Reikšminiai žodžiai: Dailininkai; 18 amžius; Lietuvos Didžioji Kunigaikštystė (LDK; Grand Duchy of Lithuania; GDL); Artist; Eighteenth century.

ENThe article is dedicated to discussion about the opportunities artists had in the eighteenth-century Grand Duchy of Lithuania, what factors were defining artists career and his valuation and how it changed along with social and cultural shifts in the country. Historical sources retain names of around 700 artists that worked in the eighteenth-century Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The artists belonged to a peculiar inter-estate stratum with significant differences in education, social and economic situation. Majority of artists lived and worked in towns, with smaller part working in the manors of noblemen under continuous service or temporary contracts, and also there was a small number of artist friars who did jobs in various convents of the country. Social and economic situation of artists in towns was similar to that of craftsmen, yet artists working in the manors of aristocrats usually had status of the middle-rank manor officials. Still, eighteenth-century artists were able to achieve higher levels of career than most of craftsmen because of the rank of their patrons. The work of artists was in demand mostly in higher levels of society and that determined better pay, sponsoring of studies and other kind of encouragement. Career opportunities for artists were usually defined by their reputation and education. The top level of the career was occupied by the status of royal court artist, which was a guarantee of high qualification. Noblemen of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Church hierarchy, when trying to realize important projects sought to engage the royal masters. Artists that studied abroad were also in demand. Noblemen o f the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, because of the deficit of good artists, tried to keep those artists that worked long-term in their manors.Career of a court artist guaranteed steady payment and legal protection, however artists not always desired long-term service because of the significant limitations on their life and work. Difficulties in searching for a decent master encouraged noblemen to keep artists in their manors while teaching arts to local kids. The need in arts for vocation or special gifts is demonstrated by the fact that only a small part of children selected by the noblemen were able to learn painting. Apart from the ties to influential customers, to the career of an artist were important links to requested architects, also familial links to the ruling elites of towns and important officials of the courts. In the second half of the eighteenth century, especially at the end of the century, attitude towards artistic occupation has incurred significant changes. Social status of famous artists, large compensations and ennoblement affected attitudes towards arts among both the society and the artists, and promoted its prestige. Rise of prestige of the profession was aided by the fact that society started appreciating more of the local artists (artists-fellow countrymen). They have begun to be mentioned in various contexts among the most deserving of the nation. [From the publication]

Related Publications:
2022-01-16 14:03:10
Views: 19