Lietuvių kalbos zoonimai: karvės, jaučio, veršio pavadinimai ir jų motyvacija

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Lietuvių kalbos zoonimai: karvės, jaučio, veršio pavadinimai ir jų motyvacija
Alternative Title:
Lithuanian zoonyms: the words for cow, bull and calf, and their motivation
In the Journal:
Res humanitariae. 2019, t. 26, p. 37-49
Semasiologija; Onomasiologija; Zoonimai; Motyvacijos modelis; Motyvacijos modelių tipai.
Semasiology; Onomasiology; Zoonyms; Model of motivation; Types of models of motivation.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje kompleksiškai analizuojami lietuvių kalbos karvės, jaučio, veršio pavadinimai, siekiant nustatyti, kokius konceptualiuosius gyvūnų požymius padeda išryškinti semasiologiniai ir onomasiologiniai leksikos tyrimai. Pagrindinis empirinės medžiagos šaltinis – LKŽe. Kompleksinė semasiologinė ir onomasiologinė leksemų analizė rodo, kad kalbos sistema fiksuoja labai įvairius karvės, jaučio, veršio konceptualiuosius požymius. Aptariamų gyvulių hierarchijos viršūnėje yra karvė. Iš kalbos sistemos ryškėjanti kategorizacija atskleidžia antropocentrinį gyvulių vertinimą. [Iš leidinio]

ENFrom a semasiological point of view, the words for cow, bull and calf form an abundant subset of the zoonym thematic group: about 150 invariant lexemes have been identified from lexicographical sources. The Lithuanian language system does not have a common hyperonym for the lexemes discussed. This thematic group is wide, with no clear boundaries. It is problematic to define the boundaries between occasional, situational naming. From an onomasiological point of view, most nominathems belong to the descriptive type of models of motivation, and fewer to the comparative and functional types. Cow has the most names according to different attributes of motivation. A synchronous analysis of motivation showed that animals are named by various motivational attributes: colour (cow and bull); sound (cow and calf); body morphology (cow); reproductive traits, and number of offspring (cow).The expression of typical lexical motivators is explicit, their inventory consists of: various colouratives (white, black, grey, dark brown, coloured), verbs of a verbal origin (bold, murmur), onomatopoeia (bu, mu, tpru), function, behavioural verbs (raise, scream, spike, squeal), and somatisms (horn, heel, tail). The inventory of implicit lexical motivators includes: artefact names (sword, pattern), inanimate realities (coal, smoke, frost), zoonym (bull, cow, goat). A diachronic analysis of the motivation showed that the oldest attributes of motivation are related to images of a ‹horned animal› (cow), a ‹carriage, horsedrawn animal› (bull), and ‹male› (calf). An analysis of complex semasiological and onomasiological lexemes showed that the language system captures a variety of conceptual features of cow, bull and calf. The most important are: a) gender (female/male), b) age (juvenile/ adult animal), c) reproductive characteristics of the cow (offspring/no offspring). At the top of the animal hierarchy is the cow. This categorisation, which emerges from the language system, reflects the anthropocentric evaluation of the animals discussed. [From the publication]

1822-7708; 2538-922X
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2020-07-28 20:31:07
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