Žemaitijos krikštas: christianizacijos procesas XV-XVII amžiuje

Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Knyga / Book
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Žemaitijos krikštas: christianizacijos procesas XV-XVII amžiuje
Publication Data:
Vilnius : Vilniaus universiteto leidykla, 2018
Pages:
370 p.
Notes:
Bibliografija ir rodyklės.
Contents:
Kas yra Žemaitija? — Kodėl reikia tirti Žemaitijos christianizaciją? — Paskutinis žemaičių pagonybės aprašymas? (Jeronimo Prahiškio misija) — Žemaitijos perėjimas iš pagoniškosios į krikščioniškąją epochą (oficialiosios konvencijos konceptas) — Žemaitijos konversija ir depagonizacija (iki Klovainių "bizūnų" 1622 m.) — Paskutiniai Europos krikščionys — Žemaitijos christianizacijos plentas arba žemaičių krikšto paveldas — Kas yra žemaitiškumas — Žemaitijos krikšto vaizdai.
Keywords:
LT
Žemaitija; Žemaičiai; Christianizacija; Pagonybė; Konstanco bažnytinis susirinkimas; Krikštas; Jeronimas Prahiškis
EN
Samogitia; Samogitians; Christianization; Paganism; Council of Constance; Jerome of Prague
Summary / Abstract:

LTMonografija skirta paskutinio Europoje pagoniško regiono - Žemaitijos christianizacijai. Pagrindinė problema - istoriografijoje egzistuojantis 500 metų chronologinis sampratų skirtumas tarp to, kas laikoma Žemaitijos christianizacijos pabaiga. Vieniems tai - XV a. pradžia (1413–1417 m.) - įvykinė krikšto samprata, kiti proceso pabaigą mato net XVIII-XIX a. Ši problema sprendžiama pirmiausia teoriniu lygmeniu, perimant iš Vakarų istoriografijos sąvoką "konversija", taikomą tiek christianizacijos politinių permainų laikotarpiui ("oficialioji konversija"), tiek visuomenės virsmo iš pagoniškos į krikščionišką epochai (konversija plačiąja prasme). Knygoje siekiama parodyti pagrindinius Žemaitijos ankstyvosios christianizacijos tarpsnius, pradedant misijiniu christianizacijos etapu, kurio pagrindinis istorinis faktas yra Jeronimo Prahiškio misija 1401-1404 m., pasibaigusi paskutine pagonybės pergale. "Oficialiosios konversijos" lūžyje, kuris apima krikštijimo akcijas ir vyskupijos įkūrimą, pagoniškasis veiksnys pasireiškė pagoniška reakcija - 1418 m. maištu, kuris vis dėlto nebenutraukė to meto tarptautinio forumo - Konstanco bažnytinio susirinkimo kuruojamo proceso. Konversijos plačiąja prasme pabaiga yra įvertinama pagal tokius rodiklius: parapijų tinklo tankis, paskutinių suaugusiųjų krikštijimo faktai, bažnyčių lankymo socialinės kontrolės sistemos faktai, dievų sąrašų bei pagoniškų praktikų liudijimai. Visi šie rodikliai leidžia teigti, kad XVII a. pradžią galima laikyti Žemaitijos konversijos pabaiga. Leidinys skiriamas akademinei bendruomenei ir visiems, kurie domisi istorijos bei Žemaitijos klausimais. [Anotacija knygoje]

ENThe work is prefaced with a question posed by Alfredas Bumblauskas - what is Samogitia? Such a question is important in the sense that it is yet to be answered, as the dominant concept of Samogitia is an ethnographic one; this concept does not include the historical Samogitia, which was relevant during the times of Samogitia’s Christianization. Additionally, this and other controversies regarding the concept of Samogitia - especially the sublimation of Samogita’s historical subjectivity - not only require a common agreement but are also imperative in answering the question of what is the relationship between the Christianization of Samogitia and the Christianization of Lithuania. Two important conclusions can be drawn regarding this aspect: despite the historical specifics, Samogitia is a part of Lithuania; second, a historical definition of Samogitia is necessary for the concept of the Christianization of Samogitia. One of the reasons for these disagreements is the absence of the most general model of Christianization - not only in the historiography of Lithuania but also in that of Europe. Therefore, a theoretical model of Christianization, intended for a particular region or country (one that is suitable, first of all, to the countries of Central and Northern Europe), is proposed, which consists of four stages: "the Mission Christianization", the "Official Conversion", the "Broad Conversion" and the "Inner Christianization". "Mission Christianization" encompasses all sporadic contacts with Christianity and even individual baptisms; "Official Conversion" is attained with the adoption of Christianity by the elite of the state (region); during the stage of conversion in the broad sense, Christianity, along with its minimum requirements (baptism and a refusal to continue pagan practices), "descends" to the lowest strata of a society and its remotest parishes.During the stage of the "Inner Christianization", Christian practices spread universally, and a Christian culture begins to develop. The process of depaganization can be regarded as a sign of the phases of both conversions - the "Official Conversion" and the "Broad Conversion", and the latest phase of "Inner Christianization" is already related to the changes in mentality. The concept of the "Official Conversion" - as a fateful period of Christianization - entails the inability to come to an agreement in historiography on the relationship between the baptisms of Samogitia and Lithuania. Three criteria as to the end of the conversion in the broad sense are essentially agreed upon in theory - the refusal of sacrificing to the pagan gods, the baptism of all adults and the formation of a network of parishes of necessary density. The latter criterion, which is easily verified and compared with the Christianization of other countries, is mostly developed in the Polish theoretical thought: the criterion for the density of a minimal network of parishes (when the average radius of a parish amounts to 10 km), introduced by H. Łowmiański, would correspond with the end of the Broad Conversion in the model of the phases of Christianization, and the criterion of the unchanging density of the network of parishes, introduced by J. Kloczowski, corresponds with the end of Inner Christianization. From the three conceptions of the interaction of Christianization and the factor of paganism formulated in the hypothesis, neither the first (which accentuates the obvious advantage of Christianity), nor the second (which accentuates the vitality of paganism) need the concept of depaganization, because, according to the first one, no factor of paganism exists, and for the second one, paganism can hardly be suppressed - this only takes place in modern times.The process of depaganization is possible only according to the third concept perceiving Christianization as a transformation of several phases from a pagan society into a Christian one, where depaganization, alongside evangelization, forms an essential part of the process of making a state Christianized. The factor of paganism is seen in all major phases of Christianization: Jeronimas Prahiškis’s mission fails due to the phase of the Mission Christianization, and the issue of paganism is raised to the level of international diplomacy at the Council of Constance during the second phase of the Official Conversion; Samogitia’s Official Conversion can be regarded as completed only after overcoming the pagan reaction in 1418. The factor of paganism is defined by the lists of gods and the mentioning of their cult during the third phase - that of the Broad Conversion. Lithuania’s Official Conversion - though it took place under specific conditions - corresponded with the general model of Christianization of the European countries. Therefore, it is necessary to speak not about the "baptism" of the country in terms of a single date (it can be only symbolic, and, according to the general model, only the baptism of the ruler can be regarded as such) but more in regard to the period of the Official Conversion, which lasted for several decades. This period is to encompass both the baptism of the ruler and its environment and the baptism of the population, as well as the creation of a church organization with dioceses, monasteries, the first parishes, the overcoming of the pagan opposition and reactions - in others words, that which is sometimes referred to as the "consolidation of Christianity". Furthermore, this transformation must to encompass all the regions of the country. [...] [Extract, p. 343-344]

ISBN:
9786090700877
Subject Area:
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Najstarsze pastoralia obrządku łacińskiego w księgozbiorach litewskich (XV - pocz. XVI wieku). Stan i perspektywy badań kodykologicznych i analitycznych / Krzysztof Bracha. Ženklai, simboliai, prasmės : Lietuvos Didžiosios Kunigaikštystės tyrimai pagalbinių istorijos mokslų aspektu / sudarytojos Rūta Čapaitė, Gitana Zujienė. Vilnius: Lietuvos istorijos institutas, 2019. P. 75-104.
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2019-11-26 19:17:26
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