Vakarų Europos dailės kolekcionavimo pokyčiai XIX a. Lietuvoje

Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Knygos dalis / Part of the book
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Vakarų Europos dailės kolekcionavimo pokyčiai XIX a. Lietuvoje
Alternative Title:
Changes in the collection of West European art in the 19th century in Lithuania
Vakarų Europos dailė; Kolekcijos; XIX amžius; Lietuva; Meno rinka.
West European countries; Collections; 19th century; Lithuania; Art collection.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje aptariami Vakarų Europos dailės kolekcionavimo pokyčiai XIX a. Lietuvoje. Aiškinamasi, kodėl XVIII-XIX a. sandūroje išaugo tokio tipo rinkinių skaičius, kurių šalių dailei skirtas didžiausias dėmesys ir kaip kito kolekcijų turinys laikui bėgant. Daug dėmesio skiriama užsienio ir vietinei meno rinkai, kolekcininkų galimybėms įsigyti Vakarų Europos dailės pavyzdžių. Remiamasi konkrečiais archyviniuose dokumentuose esamais pavyzdžiais, Lietuvos ir užsienio autorių tekstais. [Iš leidinio]

ENThis article is dedicated to clarifying why, when and how art objects created in other countries made their way into Lithuanians’ collections in the 19 th century. It became apparent that the number of West European artworks, as well as collections in the general sense, started to grow rapidly in Lithuanian manors in the late 18th-early 19th centuries. This was due to the ideas of the Age of Enlightenment coming from the West and especially the culture of travelling. The increased attention to artworks and the universally recognised superiority of Italy in this regard made the Appenine Peninsula a primary destination for the Grand Tour. The magnates of Lithuania, and other countries, would travel here to acquaint themselves with art masterpieces and acquire exhibits for their collections. The second intensive stage of the spread of West European art in our country was associated with the wave of emigration brought about by the events of 1812 and 1831. Educated magnates mostly travelled to France, where, having spent a few years there, and coming under the influence of the fashions and availability of works, would acquire numerous pieces. English auction houses took over increasingly stronger positions in Europe’s art markets in the second half of the 19th century. Lithuanian collectors used this fact to their benefit. The taste of Lithuanian collectors who acquired West European artworks reflected the European trends at the time. Italian art, especially mature Renaissance artists’ works, remained a priority throughout the whole 19th century. Nonetheless, in the first decades of the 19 th century, 17th-century Flemish and Dutch masters did attract increasingly more attention from collectors. In terms of their number, paintings created by artists from this region were often second in collections.In the middle of the 19th century, art from the Germanic lands grew in popularity, and works by contemporaries were usually acquired in foreign countries. Replicas of acknowledged masterpieces were a frequent phenomenon in Lithuanian collections at the time. They often replaced an original in collectors’ systems when acquiring the latter would have been impossible. In the period between the uprisings, we notice a trend where artists studying abroad with the sponsorship of local collectors would then paint and send copies or replicas of foreign masters to their patrons (Tadas Goreckis, Karolis Rafalavičius, Kanutas Ruseckas). On the other hand, an original work by a famous author would always have an exclusive status. Attention to artworks, especially painting and the act of collecting itself, increased. This is reflected in the growing number of collectors, as well as various texts and the content of private libraries. There were more cultural press publications, articles dedicated solely to art, and to individual collections. As demand grew and the cost of artworks increased, acquiring an original work proved to be more and more difficult. This not only created the conditions for the emergence of forgeries, but also meant that newly-formed collections from the late 19th century were of a lower quality. The most valuable collections were usually those that were partly inherited, having been formed at the beginning of the century. In Lithuania, around a third of the collections at the time were of this kind. West European artists’ paintings usually became a part of Lithuanian collections when the collector themselves would visit a foreign country, or when the services of intermediaries were used. The acquisition of a high-level artwork would be an expensive pleasure.Apart from the cost of the actual work, which steadily increased towards the end of the century, there were also transportation costs to be taken into consideration. One also needed connections, to be able to speak several languages, and to have specialised knowledge. For these reasons, the collection of foreign artists’ works was possible only among wealthier individuals. There were limited opportunities to purchase foreign artists’ works locally, i.e., in Vilnius or Warsaw. Greater activity on the art market was usually associated with major sales from local collections or the brief appearances of foreign dealers. [From the publication]

Related Publications:
2020-01-28 19:39:23
Views: 109