Географические загадки силлаборитмического варьирования 5-сложников в пределах славяно-балтского раннетрадиционного меломассива

Direct Link:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Rusų kalba / Russian
Географические загадки силлаборитмического варьирования 5-сложников в пределах славяно-балтского раннетрадиционного меломассива
Alternative Title:
Geographic puzzles of the syllable-rhythmic variation of the 5-syllable complexes within the Slavic-Baltic early-tradition melodical massive
In the Journal:
Tradicija ir dabartis. 2018, 13, p. 15-37
Ukraina (Ukraine); Lietuva (Lithuania); Dainos / Songs; Papročiai. Apeigos / Customs. Rites.
Summary / Abstract:

LTUkrainiečių etnomuzikologės Irynos Klymenko (Iрина Клименко) straipsnyje pateikiamas tyrimo objektas yra 5 sudėtinių dalių ritminės formulės, žinomos ukrainiečių, baltarusių, lenkų, lietuvių kalendorinių apeiginių liaudies dainų melodijose. Tyrimo šaltiniai – apie 5 000 vestuvinių, žiemos (kalėdinių), pavasario ciklų kalendorinių apeiginių dainų melodijų, pasižyminčių 5 dalių skiemenų ritminėmis sekomis vienoje posmo eilutėje. Autorė tiria tokias 5 skiemenų ritminių sekų variantiškumo ypatybes, priklausančias nuo įvairių veiksnių: a) nuo žanro; b) nuo posmo struktūros: monoritminės 55 arba heteroritminės V553, V557 ir t. t.; c) nuo melodijų regioninės lokalizacijos. Platus minėtų skiemenų ritmo apraiškų parametrų spektras yra suglaustas iki dviejų pagrindinių algoritmų. Tiriami melodijų variantai lokalizuojami geografiniuose žemėlapiuose, kuriais naudojantis galima atlikti daugialypius lyginamuosius tyrimus. Šio straipsnio esminis tikslas – atkreipti mokslinės bendruomenės dėmesį į nepakankamai ištirtus sudėtingus tipologinius-geografinius arealus ir melodikos variantiškumo bei invariantiškumo procesus, tebevykstančius plačiose slavų ir baltų ankstyvosios folklorinės tradicijos sąsajų teritorijose. [Iš leidinio]Reikšminiai žodžiai: 5 skiemenų ritminė seka; Apeiginės melodijos; Arealogija; Kalendorinės; Kalendorinės apeiginės melodijos; Kalėdinės dainos; Kalėdinės dainos (koliadky); Ritminės formulės; Slavų ir baltų ankstyvosios tradicijos melomasyvai; Vestuvinės dainos; 5-syllabic; Arealogy; Calendar ritual tunes; Carols (kolyadky); Group; Rhythmic formula, 5-syllabic rhythmic succession; Rhythmic variations; Ritual tunes; The Slavic-Baltic early-tradition melodic massive; The Slavic-Baltic early-tradition melodical massive; Wedding songs; Wedding songs, Christmas carols.

ENThrough the last decade the author has been conducted the research on the ritual vocal music art in a polyethnic scale which unite the Ukrainians, the Belarusians, the Eastern Poles and the Southern Lithuanians – Dzūkija ethnic region. I called this quadrolinguial macro- areal «the Slavo-Baltic Early Traditional Melodic Massive». One of the universal syllable-rhythmic forms popular among the SBEM folk singers is the 5-syllabic group (V5). The tradition selected several rhythmic versions the V5, two types among them are very popular: “Kolyadkovy” (winter ritual song type) 11112 and “waltz-like” 11121 (the 1-digits indicate the eighth durations, the 2-digits are quarters, this recording system was suggested by K. Kvitka and became commonly used in Ukraine). They form the independent monorhythmic compositions (2-line strophe ‹V552›), as well as they are the part of the various hetero-rhythmic forms, for example, ‹V532›, ‹V572›, ‹V5532›, ‹V5572›, ‹V532557› etc. The mono-rhythmical compositions ‹V552› (ex. 1, 2) formed the colossal massives in the wedding and spring genres. “Carol-like” and “waltz-like” types are in this case geographical opposites (check the map nr. 1). The “Carol-like” type begins in the upper part of a Dniper basin and continues into the Middle Polissia zone, whereas the 3-dimension “waltz-like” type covers the North-West part of the SBEM. In the hetero-rhythmical compositions the V5 groups act differently, they incur multiple rhythmic variations. The types of such variations form the sophisticated geographical intersections. The most exemplary ones are the 3-elements formulas – ‹V553› and ‹V557›, that formed the vast polyethnic areals. The ‹V553› formed the basis of (a) the wedding Ukrainia-Belarusian- Polish massive (more than 1450 recordings (ex. 3).covering the SBEM Western part – the right bank of the Dniper basin and other territories, see the map nr. 3) and b) winter (carol) Ukrainian-Polish massive (ca. 900 recordings, ex. 8, 9, see the map nr. 4) with the Galician-Carpathian hub and the insular parts expanding into Belarusian Polissia, Poozeria and Lithuanian Dzūkija region. The ‹V557› formed a gigantic macro-areal (more than 2200 recordings, ex. 4, 7) that spreads over the whole SBEM (see the map nr. 2). Both of those rhythmical forms are of tridimensional nature. Presumably the prototype of the “Carol-like” group would be double iamb (iambic demeter) 1212, the first long syllable of which breaks into two parts. The prototype of the “waltz-like” group is antispast (antispastas) 1221, the mechanism of becoming a 5-syllabic structure of which is identical. The antispast, unlike the better known double iamb, is used on an uncomparably less, on a local scale of the SBEM areal. Primary diiamb and antispast “remind about themselves” during the performance of a significant part of the ‹V553› and ‹V557› tune types, where the 4- and 5-syllable groups are randomly changing among each other (ex. 3–6). I call this fenomen “the alternate mode” (the A algorithm). It is widely known among the Ukrainians and Belarusians, but in the certain formulas the areals of its use differentiate, which represents it as a scientific riddle. The typological riddles also offer the researcher another algorithm for varying: the replacement of the carol-rhythm construction to the “waltz-like” one within the same composition (‹algorithm B›). A classical typology considers the characteristic rhythmic construction as an indicative parameter of a distinguishing of the typical forms (this is well illustrated by the song massives with the formula ‹V552›).However, the formulas ‹V553› and ‹V557› demonstrate the possibility of a replacing of a construction within the one song type, while in each of the genre typological groups examined here this replacement occurs in a unique way. The general results of the areals comparative research. It has been found that in the forms ‹V553› and ‹V557› instead of 5-syllabical ones we can use 5 types of rhythmical construct, including the 4-syllabical versions. Certain genres in certain places use this possibility differently. Partial explanation of these phenomena we find in certain macrorhythmical patterns of SBEM, previously established by author with the help of examples of others genres and forms. Thus, the common map of algorithm A manifestations – changing 5-syllabical type to diiamb or (more rarely) to other 4-syllabical types – illustrates the Western Iambic Arch, which was depicted in literature multiple times (Belogurova, 2011; Klymenko, 2012). Beresteyshchyna, known as the central area of the diiambs concentration, confirms its status. The map also emphasises the patterns, that we can explain with the North-South vector of the partialisation algorithm: domination of primary forms in the North of SBEM, active randomly variations / alterations in Polissia, the permanence of secondary forms in the Central Ukraine. I want to draw the attention of the scientific community to these typological and geographical intricacies that occur in the large song massives. After several decades of the in-depth regional researches, in the Slavic ethnomusicology a need to return to the parallel studying of the inter-ethnic connections has emerged. The Ukrainian classics were engaged in this researches in the first half of the 20th century. Now such ideas can be checked at a new level of a knowledge about the material – recordings are estimated in tens of thousands. [From the publication]

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2020-04-10 06:40:23
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