Lietuviškoji numizmatikos heraldika: XIV a. pabaiga - XV a.

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Lietuviškoji numizmatikos heraldika: XIV a. pabaiga - XV a
Alternative Title:
Lithuanian numismatic heraldry at the end of the fourteenth century and in the fifteenth century
In the Journal:
Terra Jatwezenorum [Jotvingių kraštas: jotvingių krašto istorijos paveldo metraštis]. 2014, 6, p. 118-126, 476-477, 504-505
Reikšminiai žodžiai: Dvigubas kryžius; Gediminaičių stulpai; Heraldika; Heraldiniai ženklai; LDK numizmatika; Lietuvos monetos; Numizmatika; Valdovų dinastiniai herbai; Vytis; 14 amžius; 15 amžius; Chaser; Columns of Gediminas; Double Cross of the Chaser; Dynastic heraldic symbols; Heraldic signs; Heraldry; Heraldry symbols; Lithuania; Lithuanian coins; Lithuanian numismatic; Numismatic; Numismatics; The Double Cross; Vytis; XIV–XV century.
Archeologiniai tyrinėjimai / Archaeological investigations; Dvigubas kryžius; Gediminaičių stulpai; Genealogija. Heraldika / Genealogy. Heraldry; Numizmatika / Numismatics; Valdovai; Vytis.
Summary / Abstract:

ENThe article discusses the basic heraldry symbols presented on the oldest Lithuanian coins. The appropriate allocation of coins either to rulers or vassals who minted them depended on the correct interpretation of the coins. With the latest archaeological finds it is possible to answers some questions about the Lithuanian heraldry and present a comprehensive review of the heraldic symbols that come from the end of XIV and XV centuries. The symbols shown on the Lithuanian coins are divided into 3 groups: first, the coat of arms of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania - “Vytis” (the “Chaser”); second, the personal dynastic heraldic symbols of the great dukes - “Gedimino Stulpai” (the “Columns of Gediminas”) and “Dvigubas Vyties Kryžius” (the “Double Cross of the Chaser”); and, third, other heraldic symbols - the “Spear Tip with the Cross”, the “Dragon”, the “Lion”, “Two Lions”. In addition to the scientifically explained origin and attributes of certain heraldic symbols, such as the “Chaser”, the “Columns of Gediminas”, and the “Double Cross”, the latest archaeological discoveries have allowed for the correct interpretation of the meaning of the heraldic signs that have so far been interpreted ambiguously. It was determined that the “Spear Tip of the Cross” is not a symbol of the Vytautas family, but rather a symbol created from the attributes of Saint Jurgis (Eng. George). It was a symbol of Christianity, which, after the Christianization of Lithuania in 1387, was used by the Grand Dukes of Lithuania Jogaila and Vytautas in order to emphasize that they are the rulers of the Catholic country.This contributed to the end of the Teutonic Order invasions that took place well after the victory at Žalgiris in 1410. It was also agreed that the “Dragon” presented on the denarii of the Jogailaičiai dynasty was the symbol of St. Jurgis. The image of the “Dragon” appeared on the great seal from 1386, where the coat of arms of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania showed Jogaila in a pose of St. Jurgis. Under his horse’s hooves there were the “Dragon” and the fragments of a broken spear. On the other hand, the denarii with the heraldic “Lion” were minted by Jogaila’s vassal, Skirgaila. In addition to the lion, the coin bears the image of two hearts woven into an intricate and inseparable node, symbolizing the vassal’s fidelity to his sovereign (1382-1392). On the obverse of this type of coin, minted after the baptism of Lithuania in 1387, there was either the image of “Jogaila with the Crown” or the “Double Cross on the Shield”. The obverse of the peripheral coins of Vytautas, devoted to the conquest of Smolensk in 1404, show the “Double Columns of Gediminas”. On the reverse side of these coins there was the “Lion” or the “Lion with the Young Cub”. Over the Lion there was the heraldic “Lily”, symbolizing the ruler (Vytautas). It is believed that the “Lion” and “Lily” presented on these coins symbolized the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, whereas the “Lion Cub” stood for Smolensk and his liege lord. [From the publication]

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2021-02-01 12:02:44
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