Lenkijos bajorai kryžiaus žygių į Lietuvą dalyviai XIV amžiaus antroje pusėje

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Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Lenkijos bajorai kryžiaus žygių į Lietuvą dalyviai XIV amžiaus antroje pusėje
Alternative Title:
Polish nobles as participants of the crusades to Lithuania in the 2nd half of the 14th century
In the Journal:
Istorija [History]. 2013, Nr. 92, p. 3-13
Notes:
Reikšminiai žodžiai: Kryžiaus žygiai; Kryžiaus žygiai, Lenkijos bajorija ir Lietuva XIV–XV amžiais, „Garbės stalas“, Gelre herbynas, Bellenville herbynas; Lenkija (Lenkijos karalystė. Kingdom of Poland. Poland); Mazovija; Vokiečių Ordinas (Teutonic Order; Kryžiuočių ordinas); Crusades; Lithuania; Mazovia; Polish nobility and Lithuania in the 14th–15th century, Table of Honour (Ehrentisch), Gelre Armorial, Bellenville Armorial.
Keywords:
LT
Genealogija. Heraldika / Genealogy. Heraldry; Kryžiaus žygiai; Kryžiaus žygiai, Lenkijos bajorija ir Lietuva XIV–XV amžiais, Garbės stalas, Gelre herbynas, Bellenville herbynas; Mazovija; Vokiečių Ordinas (Teutonic Order; Kryžiuočių ordinas).
EN
Crusades; Mazovia; Polish nobility and Lithuania in the 14th–15th century, Table of Honour (Ehrentisch), Gelre Armorial, Bellenville Armorial.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje, remiantis viduramžių Vakarų Europos XIV a. pabaigos – XV a. pradžios herbynų (Gelre herbynas, Bellenville herbynas) informacija, skelbtais Vokiečių ordino, Lenkijos karalystės ir Lietuvos Didžiosios Kunigaikštystės dokumentais, gausia įvairių šalių istoriografija, siekiama atskleisti Lenkijos bajorijos – kryžiaus žygių į Lietuvą dalyvių – vaidmenį XIV a. pabaigos – XV a. pradžios Lietuvos istorijoje. Mėginama išskirti lenkų bajorų įsitraukimo į karines Vokiečių ordino akcijas, vadinamuosius „reisus“, etapus, išsiruošimo arba dalyvavimo žygiuose motyvus, taip pat pristatyti šių žygių dalyvių – lenkų bajorų – biografijas. Bendrų Lietuvos Didžiosios Kunigaikštystės ir Lenkijos karalystės tarpvalstybinių santykių fone XIV amžiaus pabaigoje – XV a. pr. siekta atsekti tolimesnius Lenkijos kryžininkų ryšius su Lietuva Lietuvos valdovų Jogailos ir Vytauto aplinkoje. [Iš leidinio]

ENBased on the information from the armorials of medieval Western Europe of the late 14th century – early 15th century (Gelre Armorial, Bellenville Armorial), published documents of the Teutonic Order, the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania as well as abundant historiography of various countries, the article seeks to reveal the role of the Polish nobility as participants of the crusades to Lithuania in the history of Lithuania of the late 14th century – early 15th century. The participation of Polish nobility in the crusades to Lithuania in the 14th century was not marked by prominent intensity, though written sources include fragmentary hints to possible participation of Polish representatives in the crusades of 1322, 1343, 1345, and 1369. More significant changes in the situation occurred after the death of Casimir III the Great, King of Poland, the change of the ruling dynasty and the intensified Lithuanian military campaigns – in the autumn of 1376. The 1377 campaign of Louis I, King of Hungary and Poland from the Angevin dynasty, against Lithuania and a more active involvement of Polish nobles in the winter campaigns of the Teutonic Order of 1377-1378, 1378-1379, 1379-1380 testified by the occurrence of the coats of arms associated with the Polish nobility became a response to Lithuanian military campaigns. The death of Louis I in the autumn of 1382 was followed by an intensive period of 1382-1385 marked by controversy over the succession to the throne of the Kingdom of Poland, which did not discontinue the relations of a part of the Polish political elite and the nobility in the castle of Marienburg. The time was marked by intensified relations between the manor of one of the candidates to the throne, Siemowit IV, Duke of Masovia, and his supporters in Prussia.A significant part of his more accomplished supporters went to Prussia as crusaders and they were mentioned in the list of participants of the "Table of Honour" (Ehrentisch) of 1385; through it, the coats of arms of these nobles made their way to Gelre and Bellenville armorials. In the attempt to assess the reasons of involvement of Polish nobility in the crusades against Lithuania, Polish historians paid attention to the motives behind the relations of the opposition to the royal crown and the Teutonic Order, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania as the common enemy and, finally, the circumstances of competition of competing or newly emerging candidates (Siemowit IV of the Masovian Piast Dynasty as a representative of the old ruler dynasty against the foreign Angevin dynasty or a new foreign candidate Jogaila). According to the research of Werner Paravicini, one of the most outstanding researchers of the crusades in the Baltic region, on the application of Pierre Bourdieu’s "theory of capitals" in the activities of "meaningful waste" of crusaders, it can be stated that the access of a part of Polish nobles to the list of the "Table of Honour" important to the chivalrous ceremonial of the Teutonic Order, the visits of the duke of Masovia and his escort to Marienburg symbolised the growth of social, symbolic or honour capital unambiguously established in the afore-mentioned armorials of Western Europe of the late 14th century. The studies of the sources of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania of the late 14th century – early 15th century enable us to speak about the subsequent, though not very intensive, relations of these Polish noblescrusaders with Lithuania – military, social, political. [...]. [From the publication]

ISSN:
1392-0456; 2029-7181
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https://www.lituanistika.lt/content/53995
Updated:
2019-03-15 12:57:18
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