Tarpusavio pagalba ir įsipareigojimai XX a. Lietuvos kaimo bendruomenėje

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Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Tarpusavio pagalba ir įsipareigojimai XX a. Lietuvos kaimo bendruomenėje
Alternative Title:
Mutual assistance and liabilities in the 20th c. Lithuanian village community
In the Journal:
Žemės ūkio mokslai [Agricultural sciences]. 2002, Nr. 4 (priedas), p. 93-103
Notes:
LDB Open.
Keywords:
LT
Bendrija; Etnokultūrinis tapatumas; Lietuva; Menama kaimo bendruomenė; Moterų; Moterų bendrija; Tarpusavio parama; Tarpusavio įsipareigojimai; Teritorinė kaimo bendruomenė; Tradicija; Ūkinė gimininė bendruomenė
EN
Community of women; Identity of ethnic culture; Imaginary village community; Lithuania; Mutual assistance; Mutual liabilities; Territorial village community; Tradition; Tradition, tribal economical community; Tribaleconomical community
Summary / Abstract:

LTTiriamoji tema apima daug etnologinių klausimų, susijusių su teritorinės kaimo bendruomenės raida ir jos savivokos pokyčiais Lietuvoje X X a. Remiantis autorės 1986-1991 m. etnografinių lauko tyrimų duomenimis, skelbtais etnografiniais visuomeninių kaimo funkcijų tyrimais bei kitais šaltiniais, nustatyta, kad XX a. pr. bendruomenę siejo etnokultūrinis tapatumas, atsiskleidžiantis per darbo, kaip estetinės ir etinės vertybės, suvokimą: juo pelnoma pagarba ir parama, darbu pagrįsti kartų įsipareigojimai ir prestižinis individų bei bendruomenių lenktyniavimas. Modernėjant visuomenei ir augant migracijai santykinai altruistinis darbas talkose ėmė virsti preke, įvairios tradicinės socialinės paramos formos prarado tiesioginių tarpusavio įsipareigojimų vertę ir vis labiau ėmė skleistis už teritorinės kaimo bendruomenės ribų. Teritorinis etnokultūrinis tapatumas prarado vientisumą. Siekiant naujomis aplinkybėmis patenkinti iškylančius besiplečiančios teritorinės bendruomenės narių poreikius ir suteikti gyvenimui modernumo, atsirado prielaidos lokalinei tarpusavio pagalbos ir įsipareigojimų tradicijai atsiskleisti naujai įprasmintų visuomenei priimtinų senųjų papročių elementais. [Iš leidinio]

ENOn the grounds of ethnographic field research data, published sources and ethnologic investigations, the problem of mutual relations between an individual and a community is analysed. At the beginning of the 20th c. a territorial village community functioned as a semi-close structure. Community members were held together by liabilities based on mutual assistance. The forms of liabilities were related to the individual communal self-perception, ethnic cultural identity outlines, and traditional morals. They covered the ways of economic and social co-operation, including training and education, obligatory unpaid social relief, as well as moral and physical support closely related to communal paternalist patronage. With the modernisation of society, mutual assistance crossed the restricted territorial boundaries of village community. Some forms of mutual assistance started to turn into the object of market economy; other ones began to lose the value of direct mutual liabilities. In them personal interests and the individual moral obligation to one's own village and to wider ethnic, confessional, economic, political and other territorial communities involving parishes, districts, regions and all Lithuania got intertwined. Economic reforms at the beginning of the 20th c, in the 1940s, 1950s and 1990s prompted changes in the former communal behaviour.The territorial identity acquired many meanings as with the growth of migration the individual territorial self-perception extended over several territorial levels being related to the place of one's personal origin, the place of origin of one's parents, and the current place of one's residence. In the second half of the 20th century village community members' aspirations to satisfy their emerging needs and to modernise their lives fell under new circumstances. This gave a chance to the local tradition of mutual assistance and liabilities to reveal itself in the forms based on the totality of traditional and novel cultural experience. The said display of forms came out both in territorially-unlimited stable kinship-related small tribal economic communities consisting of parents living in the country and children's families residing in the town, and in more fragile communities united by interests. Village territory survived as an emotional linkup among community exiles, placing them under moral obligations to their kin roots. [From the publication]

ISSN:
1392-0200, 2424-4120
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https://www.lituanistika.lt/content/47613
Updated:
2019-01-13 18:44:49
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