Antroponimų ir toponimų topografija etnografiniuose tekstuose: metodologinis požiūris

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Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Antroponimų ir toponimų topografija etnografiniuose tekstuose: metodologinis požiūris
Alternative Title:
Topography of anthroponyms and toponyms in ethnographic texts: methodological approach
In the Journal:
Lietuvos etnologija. 2012, 12 (21), p. 195-214. Religijos etnologija ir liaudiškasis pamaldumas
Keywords:
LT
21 amžius; Anonimiškumas; Antroponimai; Antroponimai, toponimai, etnografija; Etnografijos metodai; Etnografinis tekstas; Garso įrašai; Lauko tyrimai; Tikriniai vardai; Topografija; Toponimai.
EN
21st century; Anonymity; Anthropohyms, toponyms,ethnography; Anthroponyms; Ethnographic text; Field research; Methods in ethnography; Proper names; Recording writings; Topography; Toponyms.
Summary / Abstract:

LTXXI a. Lietuvoje, kaip ir kitose šalyse, mokslo darbuose vis labiau pageidaujamas anonimiškumas siekiant asmens duomenų apsaugos. Dėl to etnologams reikia kitokio paradigminio priėjimo prie problemos. Humanitarinių mokslų tiriamajame tekste aiškinimas (įrodymas) pagrindžiamas konkrečiais faktais, kurie dažniausiai lydimi tikriniais žodžiais (asmenų, vietų, įvykių ar reiškinių vardais), net jei darbo tikslas apibendrinamojo pobūdžio ar teoriniai samprotavimai. Tekstuose vartojami ir vieni, ir kiti žodžiai, tačiau priklausomai nuo vienų ar kitų vyravimo tekstas tampa abstraktus arba konkretus. Suvokiant, kad tiek vieni, tiek kiti yra neišvengiami (kaip du vienas kitą papildantys dariniai), straipsnyje atskleidžiama, kokią įtaką žmonių ir vietų vardų vartojimui daro tyrimo metodai ir kaip kinta etnografinis tekstas ir jo vertė jų atsisakius, - tiriama etnografiniuose tekstuose vartojamų tikrinių žodžių topografija. Analizuojant istorinius bei dabarties etnografinius tekstus, straipsnyje sprendžiami uždaviniai siekiant atskleisti: autorystės kaip informacijos nešėjo vietą etnografijos mokslo metodologijoje ir tam tikrus toponimų topografijos šiuose tekstuose aspektus (pvz., lokalumo, savitumo, ribų brėžimo). Tyrimas parodė, kad toponimų ir antroponimų vertė etnografiniuose tekstuose kito priklausomai nuo paradigminio priėjimo, tačiau jų išliekamoji (paveldo) vertė lieka reikšminga. Etnografinių tekstų, paremtų empiriniais tyrimais, vertė yra giluminė, išliekamoji (istorinė), o tyrimai, paremti mokslinių tekstų analize, yra orientuoti į perspektyvą, kultūros politiką ir išreiškia to meto minties aktualumą. [Iš leidinio]

ENIn the 21st century, in Lithuania and other countries, an increasing appeal for anonymity in scientific studies is noticeable, occasioned by personal data protection issues. Thus ethnologists need a different paradigmatic approach to the problem. Flexibility of the ethnographic method allows the researcher to look for new methods that would help find possible solutions to the problem under investigation. In research work in the humanities explanation (argument) is normally supported with concrete facts accompanied by proper names (concrete names of people, places, events or phenomena) even if the aim of the research implies generalization or theoretical reasoning. Texts feature words of both types, so the abstract or concrete character of the texts is subject to the dominance of one or another word group. Bearing in mind the fact that the usage of words, representing both groups, is inevitable (as two formations complementing each other), the article reveals how methods of research affect the usage of personal and place names and how the ethnographic text and its value change when the usage of such words is limited. Besides, an inquiry into the topography of proper names featured in ethnographic texts is performed. Ethnographic text is created by writing down and colligating data accumulated in field investigation. In such investigation (which includes direct contact face to face) the researcher absorbs information provided by the respondent in two ways: from the inside (memorising) and from the outside (putting down). The usage/non-usage of the respondents' anthroponyms in fact determines whether they are represented or impersonalized. In recording writings and respondents' data, especially their anthroponyms, a kind of distance is created between the object and the researcher as well as the reader (the respondent is no longer "anonymous folk") and the data is as if viewed from the side by the respondent and the recorder.When the information is absorbed by means of memorizing as well as recreating (especially in literature) the focus lies on the creative work of the conveyor (the author), i. e. their source is not introduced, only the author's name or pseudonym appears. In an ethnographic text which features an account of an experience - data obtained via observation - the researcher also becomes the conveyor of information and the main character of the ethnographic narrative and the text turns into an open artistic creation. Another important aspect is the fact that the researcher's (the author's) relation with folk culture (usually that of rural residents) presented in an ethnographic text is also twofold: from the inside when the researcher originates from the investigated environment and from the outside when the researcher comes from outside. In the 19th century Lithuanian researchers faced the problem of mutual trust between respondents and researchers when performing field investigation in their own and other's environment. The 20th century saw an increase in the number of researchers of folk culture who came from the folk. Some of them, usually litterateurs (e. g. S. Zobarskas), normally omitted toponyms (considered the folk to be anonymous), others (e. g. A. Mažiulis and M. Čilvinaitė), on the contrary, recorded both anthroponyms and toponyms. Ethnographic texts were related to concrete locations and described cultural heritage created there. Ethnographic works of the interwar period were characterized by deep place analysis (in the vertical plane of the research). Such toponymic recording of social and cultural reality (heritage) led to static and symbolic understanding of culture. Besides, with the identification of the location in discourse, the number of interviewees decreases and the audience shrinks. [...]. [From the publication]

ISSN:
1392-4028
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Updated:
2018-12-17 13:26:33
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