Valstietiškoji kultūra, visuomenė ir laikas : besikeičiantis Lietuvos kaimas XX amžiuje

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Valstietiškoji kultūra, visuomenė ir laikas: besikeičiantis Lietuvos kaimas XX amžiuje
Alternative Title:
Peasant culture, society and time: changing Lithuanian village over the 20th century
In the Journal:
Etnografija; Kultūrinis ir socialinis pokytis; Posovietinės transformacijos; Valstietiškoji kultūra ir visuomenė; Valstiečio ūkis.
Cultural and social change; Ethnography; Household; Lithuania; Peasant culture and society; Post-soviet tarnsformations; Post-soviet transformations.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje siekiama aptarti XX a. Lietuvos kaimo pokyčius, žvelgiant įjuos etnografiniu, arba socialiniu ir kultūriniu, požiūriu ir bandant apčiuopti esminius jų momentus. Tai retrospektyvinis ir istoriografinis darbas, pagrįstas Lietuvos etnografų ir etnologų tyrimais, 1991-2009 m. autorės lauko tyrimų patirtimi ir antropologinėmis teorinėmis prieigomis. Straipsnyje teigiama, kad posovietiniai pokyčiai Lietuvos kaime atskleidžia gerokai sudėtingesnius nei dekolektyvizacija ar nuosavybės santykių atkūrimas, įvairiasluoksnius XX a. valstiečio ūkio transformacijų klodus. [Iš leidinio]

EN[...] Aim of this study is to discuss ethnographically the changes of Lithuanian village over the 20th century, and to elucidate the main moments that are significant in social and cultural sense. This is a retrospective and a historiographic view, which is based on Lithuanian ethnologists' and ethnographers' studies, and on the author's field experience in rural areas of Lithuania throughout the period of 1991-2009. The study emphasizes that the post-soviet transformations of Lithuanian village show the processes, which are much more complex than the reestablishment of property rights, and de-collectivization. Instead it suggests emphasizing a multifaceted view, and paying attention to the controversies of cultural and social alterations that a village and a household in Lithuania experienced over the whole period ofthe 20th century. The pretext for this discussion is a story of a farmer Henrik from a village in Šalčininkai district. His story tells us about the ways of how people in Lithuania experienced post-soviet transformations, and what things appeared to be significant for them. Henrik, whom the author of the study met during field research in 1998, was living in the farmstead where he was born. Before World War II, his grandfather had 50 ha of land, and shared it among his three sons and a daughter equally 'that no harm would come'. Henrik's father was killed during World War II in Russia; nobody knows his grave. After World War II one of Henrik's uncles who lived nearby left for Poland. Henrik has two brothers and a sister. When they were small children grandparents helped their family a lot. Now his brothers and sisters live in the villages not far from him. They married earlier, and left the farmstead. Henrik, who is the youngest brother, stayed, and inherited the house, and actually the farm.He told that 'when such times came' their family decided to take the land back. He arranged all the documents needed for reestablishment of property rights, and is going to apply. However, he is already working on his own land. According to him, it is much better than to work at the kolhoz where he was an agricultural equipment operator for thirty five years. He told 'when those changes happened it was strange that you do not need to go to job. It is difficult to break a habit. You get up early in the morning, and you do not need to go anywhere. You are just on your own.' Those were the words that he used to characterize the challenge of being on his own. If to look more detailed it becomes evident that it is not the changing ofdaily routine or habits that he intended to emphasize, but the changes of agrarian order, and oftotality ofsocial worlds. Traditional Lithuanian peasant household at the beginning of the 20th century was a social unit where agricultural production was based on family with its social solidarity of living together, and working the land together, sharing the social spaces, labour, and responsibilities. It was a self-sufficient household living on its own. The land there was an axis of life that centres the worldview, rituals and worships, cultural lifestyles, and symbolic representations, routine ofdaily life and celebrities, and connects the tradition of ancestors and of living people into one unbreakable chain (Baudouin de Courtenay-Ehrenkreutzowa 1930/1998). After the reconstruction of statehood of Lithuania in 1918, and during the Interwar period of 1920's-1930's the individual strategies of households started to change actively under the land reform of 1922, and new agricultural politics established on the national level. [...]. [From the publication]

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