Botagas. Darbo įrankis, papročių atributas, simbolis… ir muzikos instrumentas?

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Botagas. Darbo įrankis, papročių atributas, simbolis… ir muzikos instrumentas?
Alternative Title:
Whip: a tool, custom attribute, symbol, and a musical instrument?
In the Journal:
Liaudies kultūra. 2012, Nr. 2, p. 33-58
Lietuva (Lithuania); Rusija (Russia); Muzika / Music.
Summary / Abstract:

LTTyrimo objektas – botagas, įvairiose tradicijose žinomas kaip darbo (ganymo) įrankis, svarbus papročių atibutas ir, kad ir kaip atrodytų keista, – muzikos instrumentas. Tikslas – atskleisti botago daugiafunkciškumą ir įvairias simbolines reikšmes, išsiaiškinti šio įrankio vietą ir prasmę lietuvių tradicijoje, lyginant su kitų tautų tradicijomis. Metodai – istorinis, tipologinis lyginamasis, analitinis aprašomasis, struktūrinis. Išvados: botagas laikytinas vienu iš populiariausių buities ir apeigų įrankių, pasižyminčiu dideliu funkcijų ir semantikos spektru: vaisingumo užtikrinimo, apsaugos, piktųjų jėgų išvarymo, dominavimo, paklusnumo užtikrinimo, baudimo ir kt. [Iš leidinio]Reikšminiai žodžiai: Botagas; Botagas, mušimas, apeiginis muzikos instrumentas, garsas; Garsas; Išvarymas; Mušimas; Pyragas; Skambinimas varpeliu; Cake; Call bell; Churning; Ostracism; Sound; Whip, beat, ritual music instrument, sound; Whips.

ENThe object of this article is the whip, which, in different traditions, is known as a work (herding) tool, an important custom attribute and, no matter how strange it may seem – a musical instrument. In Lithuania none of these aspects of the whip have been thoroughly investigated yet. In order to restore the overall image of the whip in Lithuanian traditional culture, the author relied on the wide range work by other researchers (mythologists, linguists, ethno-musicologists, etc.) as well as covering the wide context of international customs. The whip’s symbolism and ritual functions are determined by two equally important things: the action performed by it (hitting, striking), and the sound caused by it. The form of the whip itself is also important, allowing comparisons to a belt, rope and even a snake – a symbol of vitality. In the rituals, customs, and magic of different cultures, whipping from the oldest times was used as a magical tool for promoting vitality, fertility, productivity. Striking a whip is one of the ritual tools to banish adverse events or characters, such as "winter", in Russia and in Belarus – rusalka (spring) and so on. In the author’s opinion, when women singing Jurginės hymns are whipped by men, it is not to punish them for "bad" singing, but, in their own way, to contribute to the expulsion of winter. These two ritual actions – the men with whips and the women singing hymns – can be considered as equally important dimensions of waking up nature. In many traditional rituals and magical actions, the whip’s function and symbolic meaning is analogous to that of the bell. In similar circumstances, either one or the other can be used. By the way, costumed people on Užgavėnės used both whips and bells, and these two magical attributes could be had by the same character.It was found that in Lithuania the whip was used: by shepherds – as a work tool and magical protection, a way to boost fertility; by mummers dressed as Jews, Gypsies and others – as part of their costume, as a tool for "speaking" as a representative of the other world; as a method of banishing Morė, Gavėnas and other characters; as a tool to protect and encourage fertility for the carnival participants; by those "banning" Jurginės ritual songs – as a precautionary measure and a tool to help in the expulsion of winter, by wedding participants – as a tool for protection and promotion of fertility, symbolic domination in the family; in the mythological context – Perkūnas, the thunder god’s, tool. The author concludes that the whip in Lithuanian traditional culture has all the functions and purposes outlined in the article: life, fertility promotion, security, banishment and exorcism of the forces of evil, domination, power, punishment, and so on. Over time, many of the former features of the whip gradually disappeared (along with the herding, old wedding customs and others), while some of them changed. [From the publication]

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2018-12-17 13:16:47
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