Auklėjimo akcentų kaita ir jo kontroversijos XX a. II pusėje

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Auklėjimo akcentų kaita ir jo kontroversijos XX a. II pusėje
Alternative Title:
Changing basic upbringing and confrontation in the second half of the 20th century
In the Journal:
Tiltai [Bridges] [Brücken]. 2006, Nr. 4 (37), p. 83-94
Čekijos Respublika (Czech Republic); Italija (Italy); Prancūzija (France); Lietuva (Lithuania); Kultūrinis identitetas / Cultural identitity; Pilietiškumo ugdymas / Civics education; Politinė ideologija / Political ideology; Ugdymas / Education.
Summary / Abstract:

LTAuklėjimo svarbą žmonės suvokė jau seniai. Ilgą laiką didžiausias dėmesys buvo skiriamas berniukų mokymui ir auklėjimui, mergaitėms – tik antraeilis ir dažniausia neformalus. Senaisiais laikais berniukai buvo auklėjami kilniais, viduramžiais – bebaimiais riteriais ir pamaldžiais krikščionimis, naujaisiais laikais svarbus tampa patriotinis auklėjimas. XX a. ir ypač jo antrajai pusei būdingas auklėjimo įvairumas ir kontroversijos vietos ar laiko aspektu: tautinis ar nacionalinis auklėjimas, komunistinis auklėjimas – homo sovieticum kūrimas, po II pasaulinio karo iš Vakarų pasklidęs anglosaksiškasis pilietinis ugdymas, kaip demokratijos pagrindas. Lietuvoje XX a. auklėjimo akcentai keitėsi. [Iš leidinio]Reikšminiai žodžiai: Auklėjimas; Demokratija; Kaita; Komunistinis auklė jimas; Nacionalinis; Nacionalinis, tautinis, komunistinis auklėjimas; Pilietiškumo ugdymas; Tautinis; Ugdymo paradigmos; Change; Civic education; Civil upbringing; Comm unist upbringing; Democracy; Educational paradigms; National; National, communist upbringing; Up-bringing; Upbringing.

ENWriting has always been one of the attendants of civilization. With the help of it we find out about training, education, upbringing in families, communities and first upbringing institutions. In the 4th–2nd centuries BC the first river civilizations by the Tigris and Euphrates, Nile, Indi, Chuanche established the first schools; in their writings they speak about people‘s upbringing and the first philosophies and teaching how to educate a noble person, are created. Plates made of clay by ancient Shumers reflect humanity, morality and historic insight. In one of them there are father‘s guidance to his son: "Do not loiter around squares, do not hang around streets. Be modest, meet your teacher with respect. Will you reach your goal by hacking around squares? So gain your knowledge from the past. Attending school will do you good. My dear son, get acquainted with the past and look for experience in it" (Šetkus, Pobedinska, 1998, p. 60–62). Egyptian people wanted to see their children as literate, reputable, rich and aiming for career. In one papyrus it is described how a father teaches his son: "Worry over how to learn writing because then you will be able to avoid any hard work and win your way to important post". Indians’ upbringing was closely connected with the belief that a person’s belonging to the caste is determined by his/her birth. Every person has to pursue committed responsibilities honestly and after his/her death the soul will get favour. Therefore, religious Buddha teaching, that spread in India 2.5 thousand years ago, presented a purpose of upbringing: to mould a perfect man who had to go along noble eight-level road, in order to reach the highest goal. It is interesting to mention that it is assigned not only to children or youngsters but also to adults.Ancient Chinese scripture, called Šuking, declared that "people’s thoughts have to be focused on education from infancy till old age" (Esmaitis, 1930, p. 7). In the Middle Ages in Europe the main focus of upbringing was dedicated to nurturance of chivalry, but closely connected with triable upringing, that is Christian religion. Even during that period upbringing was dedicated to males, because the prupose was to to bring up a noble knight. Only at the end of the newest centuries the first countries appeared which gave equal rights both to men and women. Therefore, only in the 20th century, when we speak about the main accents of upbringing we have in mind most people of the countries where upbringing purposes were dedicated to both males and females. In the newest centuries in Europe universities finally separate from churches, and accents of religious upbringing become overpowered by building-up united nation in the 15th-16th centuries, in such countries as England, France, later in the 19th century – in Italy and Germany, in such countries which more and more give a man‘s power prominence (during the period of Revival), bring to the fore a state‘s power and point upbringing in political, national and civil direction. In the Great Didactics (Didactica magna universale omnes omnia Docendi artificium exhibens) a famous Czech teacher J. A. Komenskis highlight that didactics analyses not only teaching, but also upbringing questions. Besides, he thought that the main people‘s mission is service to the homeland and mankind. That is why he paid so much attention to upbringing of homeland love. The new ages raised even more new upbringing moments, such as, free man’s nature, humanity, public spirit. But they will acquire their place and meaning only in the 20th century.A lot of various educational trends and movements were established in the 20th century. Education state, system, pedagogic thought and upbringing accents in European countries also depended on political and social situation of that time. Countries both were different and similar to each other. Lithuania was not an exception, which tried to emancipate from Russian and German oppression for 123 years (1795–1918). It helped to orient in national direction. Consequently, national upbringing dominated distinctly and was emphasized in Lithuania during the years of Independence (1918–1940). In 1940-1941, 1945-1990 the Soviet occupation radically changed upbringing conception and separated Lithuania from democratic Western world. Lithuanian people, who stayed to internationalize national upbringing, rebuilt the national state at the first opportunity, but educative accent gradually changed into civil upbringing. A lot of education scientists study and analyse upbringing and its development, distinguish separate trends and movements. But they write very little, if at all, which educative moments are accented and why, what the reasons are that they start dominating in educational system. The subject of this article is changing basic upbringing and confrontation in the second half of the 20th century. [From the publication]

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2018-12-17 11:54:56
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