Jėzaus kūdikystės istorija Lietuvos Baroko dailėje : ikonografinis aspektas

Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Knygos dalis / Part of the book
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Jėzaus kūdikystės istorija Lietuvos Baroko dailėje: ikonografinis aspektas
Alternative Title:
History of Jesus childhood in Lithuanian Baroque art: iconographic aspect
Notes:
Reikšminiai žodžiai: Jėzaus istorija; Barokas; History of Jesus; Baroque; Lietvuvos baroko dailė; Ikonografija; Jėzaus gimimas; Apreiškimas; Išminčių pagarbinimas; Pabėgimas į Egiptą; Lithuanian Baroque fine arts; Iconography; The Birth oj Jesus; The Annunciation; Adoration of the Sheperds; The Flyght to Egypt.
Keywords:
LT
Apreiškimas; Barokas / Baroque; Dailė / Art; Ikonografija / Iconography; Išminčių pagarbinimas; Jėzaus gimimas; Jėzaus istorija; Pabėgėliai / Refugees.
EN
Adoration of the Sheperds; Annunciation; Birth oj Jesus; Flyght to Egypt; History of Jesus; Lithuanian Baroque fine arts.
Summary / Abstract:

LTNaujojo Testamento siužetai, pasakojantys Kristaus ir Švč. Mergelės Marijos gyvenimo istoriją, Europos dailėje intensyviausiai plėtojosi Viduramžių bei ankstyvojo Renesanso laikotarpiais. Po katalikiškosios reformos susiformavo nauji kultiniai akcentai – išryškintas Švč. Mergelės Marijos ir šventųjų vaidmuo. Tuo tarpu Naujojo Testamento siužetai, išskyrus kai kurias išimtis, baroko laikotarpiu tokios ryškios plėtotės neturėjo. Jų sklaida buvo susijusi ne su atskiromis garbinimo formomis, bet su tradiciniu liturginiu šventimu. Lietuvoje, kaip ir Vakarų Europoje, biblinį pasakojimą nustelbė šventųjų, ypač Dievo Motinos kultas, stipriausiai pasireiškęs per atvaizdų gerbimą. Tačiau liturginiame kontekste Naujojo Testamento įvykius atspindintis menas išliko svarbus ir aktualus, nors kiekybiniu požiūriu ne toks gausus. Dauguma Lietuvoje išlikusių meno kūrinių naratyvinių siužetų priskiriami baroko laikotarpiui. Šio straipsnio tikslas – atskleisti bendriausius dalies Naujojo Testamento siužetų, t. y. Jėzaus kūdikystės – Apreiškimo, Jėzaus gimimo, Jėzaus paaukojimo šventykloje, Išminčių pagarbinimo, Bėgimo į Egiptą – ikonografijos ypatumus Lietuvos baroko mene. Siekiant tikslo, keliami šie uždaviniai: atskleisti Tridento susirinkimo nuostatų įtaką Europos Jėzaus kūdikystės ikonografijai, išanalizuoti keletą charakteringiausių Lietuvoje išlikusių pavyzdžių ir įvertinti, kaip jų ikonografijoje atsispindi potridentinė dvasia. [Iš leidinio]

ENThe main aim of this article is the disclosure of the general peculiarities of the childhood of Jesus subjects such as The Annunciation, The Birth of Jesus, Presentation of Jesus at the Temple, Adoration of the Shepherds and The Flight to Egypt in Lithuanian Baroque art. The tasks for the attainment of this purpose are: to disclose the influence of Canon set by the Council of Trent towards the iconography of the theme of the childhood of Jesus; to analyse the most vivid examples in Lithuanian art on this subject and to perform the evaluation of the post-Tridentine period reflection in the early mentioned iconography. Surviving examples of easel paintings of the 16th-18th centuries found in the present territory of Lithuania, as well as wall-paintings are the main object of this analysis. At the post-Tridentine period the presentation of the theme of Jesus childhood diminished in Europe and Lithuania. It was determined by the rapid spread of new forms of devotion and the official declaration of Canon by the Council of Trent, sectioning the Apocrypha, one of the main sources of iconography of the theme of Childhood of Jesus. [...] In Lithuanian iconography of the Jesus childhood the European tradition is basically followed, but with less variety. The art pieces of this theme could be marked by sign of the intense development till the 18th century, but the main stream of the survived art pieces is attributed exceptionally to this epoch. The iconographie types of The Annunciation and the Adoration of the Magi in the period of Baroque were mostly developed in the territory of Lithuania. [...].The characteristic given in the field of the composition of the iconographical schemes of The Annunciation could be these two: one scheme is stable in Renaissance way, the second is Baroque dashing and very emotional. The first type of the scheme is represented in Kaunas Archdiocese Museum, in the churches of Kretinga and Janapolė. The second scheme is seen in the churches of Rokiškis, Butrimonys, Tytuvėnai, etc. The formula of The Adoration of the Magi was changed by Trent in very small amount: in Lithuania as well as in Europe the only iconographical formula has dominated. The composition of the participants in the art piece is stable: the Virgin Mary with the Child is located on the side, usually in the background of the ruins of Synagogue, St. Joseph alongside the Virgin. The Shepherds are depicted in the usual order. This compositional principle could be found in the art pieces of Prienai, Jonava, Maironiai, Karvys, Pažaislis churches, etc. Other subjects considering the theme of The Childhood of Jesus have survived in very small amount, and because of this reason the conclusions on this subject hardly be made. Though, it was noticed that the rules set by Trent were also followed even in these pieces of art. [...] The main difference between the pictures of Renaissance and Baroque is kneeling Mary, who is not praying anymore, but showing her child to the shepherds. The scene of The Birth of Jesus lost its intimacy and the public joy and wonder looking at the Saviour becomes the feeling which dominates. [...]. [From the publication]

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Updated:
2020-06-16 18:14:42
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