Devyniamislis, arba Kurklio istorija

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Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Devyniamislis, arba Kurklio istorija
Alternative Title:
One thinking nine thoughts, or the story of the Mole-Cricket
In the Journal:
Tautosakos darbai [Folklore Studies]. 2008, 36, p. 101-123
Keywords:
LT
Etnozoologija; etnoentomologija; etnomedicina; kurklys; kurmis; etnozoologija.
EN
Ethno-zoology; ethno-entomology; ethno-medicine; mole-cricket; mole; ethno-zoology.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnio objektas – etnozoologinė kurklio ("Gryllotalpagryllotalpa") apibrėžtis. Darbo tikslas – atskleisti su kurkliu siejamas mitines reikšmes, iškelti prielaidas dėl jų kilmės ir nurodyti sąsajas su kitais etnozoologijos ir etnomedicinos aspektais. Tyrimo metodai – analitinis, semiotinis, lyginamasis, interpretacinis. Straipsnio autorė teigia, kad kurklys lietuvių etnoentomologijoje užima ypatingą vietą: nors jo, kaip smulkaus daržų kenkėjo, įtaka ūkiui yra labai menka, tačiau tradicinėje kaimo bendruomenėje jis buvo svarbus dėl etnomedicinių sumetimų ir ūkinės magijos. Pirma, manoma, kad kurklio įkandimas kenkia žmogaus sveikatai ir net gali sukelti mirtį; šis tikėjimas remiasi kurklio nešiojamų bacilų "Clostridium tetarti" keliamu stabligės pavojumi. Antra, kurklys gali būti vartojamas kaip vaistas gydant pilvo srities gumbą (liaudies veterinarijoje − "vansočių") bei kitas ligas. Trečia, kurklys turi maginę kompetenciją: jį užmušus atgalia ranka, galima įgyti ypatingą gydomąją galią ("pamačlyvą ranką"); gydanti ranka yra viena svarbių lietuvių kultūros realijų, susijusių su platesne "laimingos" ("lengvos") rankos (ja dirbami darbai sekasi) koncepcija. Ketvirta, atlikus tam tikrą ritualą, kurklys gali būti panaudotas kaip vegetaciją skatinanti maginė priemonė.

ENStudies in Lithuanian ethno-zoology are hardly sufficiently developed yet, most attention so far having been paid to certain animals of religious significance and also to domestic animals and bees, while the world of insects has been all but marginalized. The article focuses on one subject in Lithuanian ethno-entomology, namely, on the mole-cricket, which is called kurkys, turklys, parplys in Lithuanian (Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa). The Lithuanian names for this insect are related to the sound that it produces, which is regarded as predictive of rain; nevertheless, the significance of this insect is grounded rather in the context of magic and ethno-medicine than in that of meteorology. The mole-cricket is believed to be capable of biting humans, and its bite is regarded as lethal; the folk mentality even identifies this creature with scorpion, which, although not found in Lithuania, was known from religious literature. In terms of virulence, the mole-cricket is even compared to the snake. It is told that mole-cricket thinks nine times before biting, and only after that it does bite; such slowness usually renders it innocuous. Stories about the mole-cricket's thinking vary: sometimes it is asserted that the insect bites only after the man thinks nine times; or that only the mole-cricket of 7 years old is dangerous, etc. The mole-cricket's thinking is reminiscent of the magic behavior, because: firstly, the magic repetition of three, nine or three times nine times is a typical means in charms; and secondly, the intensifying process determines the growth of destructive power. As in reality the mole-crickets arc innocuous and have no poison, the question is raised: why are such deadly qualities ascribed to this insect?.It could be guessed, that this creature which mostly dwells in gardens may spread infectious bacilli of tetanus Clostridium tetani, which exist in the soil fertilized with manure (prior to the era of vaccination tetanus was almost always a lethal decease). The bite of the mole-cricket is believed to be possible to heal only by means of putting a golden ring or a coin onto the injured spot; this may be interpreted as reflecting the mythic opposition: earth (the chthonic insect) vs. fire (gold as "frozen fire"). Despite the deadly danger that mole-cricket is supposed to cause, this insect itself is exceptionally important in ethno-medicine. The mole-cricket is used as medicine: the mashed insect or its decoction is believed to cure certain illnesses (like snake bite or stomach bugs, especial when suffered by the horses). But particularly important is the alleged ability of the mole-cricket to endow humans with certain powers of healing: one has to kill the insect before it has had time enough to think its nine thoughts. The killing is a magic procedure: one has to strike with the upper side of the hand and the insect has to be killed in one strike. Thus the human hand acquires healing qualities: whenever it strokes a horse, the animal can be relieved of the stomach bugs; likewise, cows are thus cured of the glandular deceases, etc. Similar powers are believed to be acquired by killing a mole. As both the mole-cricket and the mole have very well-developed fore limbs used to dig tunnels, it is quite possible that the noted similarity between their limbs and the human hand determined the alleged possibility of acquiring the healing powers by means of the magic killing of the mole or the mole-cricket. According to the linguistic data, healing in general was considered in Lithuania as involving an unusual hand (the charmer may be characterized as having nine hands).Also, an idiom the lucky hand is popular, implying that such a person enjoys luck and success, wealth and prosperity. Such meaning may partly be attributed to the mole-cricket as well: it is believed that if one kills the mole-cricket with the upper side of the hand and afterwards sows flax, it will grow up very high. [From the publication]

ISSN:
1392-2831
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2018-12-17 12:21:26
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