Privatūs palivarkai Žemaitijoje XVI a. antroje pusėje: arealas ir steigimo tendencijos

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Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Privatūs palivarkai Žemaitijoje XVI a. antroje pusėje: arealas ir steigimo tendencijos
Alternative Title:
Area and trends in setting up private "poliwarks" in Samogitia in the second half of the 16th century
In the Journal:
Acta Academiae Artium Vilnensis [AAAV.]. 2009, t. 55, p. 103-118. Lietuvos dvarai: kultūros paveldo tyrinėjimai
Notes:
LDB Open.
Keywords:
LT
Žemaičių kunigaikštystė; XVI a.; privati žemėvalda; palivarkai; arealas; XVI amžius; žemėvalda; valakų reforma
EN
Samogitian Duchy; 16 th century private; landownership; poliwarks; area.; 16th century; private landownership; area
Summary / Abstract:

LTXVI a. Žemaitija Vidurio Europoje laikoma vien a iš nedaugelio sričių, kur neįsivyravo palivarkinis ūkis. Ankstesni mokslininkų tyrimai parodė, kad XVI a. antroje pusėje, t. y. po Valakų reformos jie nebuvo steigiami nei vyskupo , nei valstybinėse žemėse. Straipsnyje siekiama parodyti, kad to meto Vidurio Europoje paplitęs ūkininkavimo metodas nebuvo svetimas šiam Lietuvos Didžiosios Kunigaikštystės (LDK) regionui. Remiantis Žemaičių žemės teismų aktų duomenimis, išaiškinta, kad XVI a. antroje pusėje privačiose valdose buvo įsteigti 26 palivarkai. Juos lokalizavus nustatytas arealas, steigimo ir laikymo tendencijos. Nors LDK oficialiu palivarkų steigimo pradininku buvo valdovas, Žemaitijoje jų organizavimo pirmiausia ėmėsi bajorija, kurios didžiąją dalį sudarė LDK ir Žemaitijos elitui priklausę asmenys. Taip pat buvo pastebėtos bajorijos pastangos palivarkus išlaikyti savo šeimos rate. [Iš leidinio]

ENHistoriography today is still dominated by the paradigm asserting that 16th century Central Europe to the east of the River Elbe was dominated by poliwarks (palivarkai), e.g., large landed estates, from a few to tens of lans, based on corvée labour (this type of agricultural activity is also referred to as a Central European model of economic activity). Yet in some of the areas in this region the poliwark economy was not established or the agricultural units of such a nature were very few. Among such are some of the lands of the Czech Republic, eastern Belarus and Samogitia - western Lithuania. W i t h the economic changes of the i6th century and the introduction of rent this area was until the i8th century allegedly dominated by the seniority type of relationships, while the poliwark-serf system of agriculture introduced by the Valakas Land Reform (one valakas equalled 20-24 ha) was never implemented in Samogitia. On the basis of the materials of the acts of Raseiniai Samogitian lawsuits over land, 26 poliwarks were recorded as set up on private landholdings in the second half of the 16th century. Once their locations were established, the area of occurrence was defined. The poliwarks were situated in the central part of Samogitian County, their spread from southeast to northwest was recorded.The holders oipoliwarks were primarily individuals from the elite of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Samogitia who sought to keep the poliwarks within their family circle as witnessed b y the documents of the landholdings. Only in the 1590s some of the poliwark landholders were simple gentry. Initial research has revealed that even though poliwarks were not set up on either the bishops or state owned lands in Samogitia, they were set up on private landholdings. This leads to a conclusion that this region of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was also impacted by the new method of farming proliferated in Central Europe, even though its spread, structure and other aspects need to be researched in the future. [From the publication]

ISSN:
1392-0316, 9789955854524
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https://www.lituanistika.lt/content/21144
Updated:
2018-12-20 23:20:19
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