Dvižodžiai statybos terminai su sudurtiniu būdvardžiu išreikštu šalutiniu dėmeniu

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Dvižodžiai statybos terminai su sudurtiniu būdvardžiu išreikštu šalutiniu dėmeniu
Alternative Title:
Two-word construction terms with the secondary component expressed by a compound adjective
In the Journal:
Terminologija. 2022, 29, p. 23-44
Kalbos dalys. Morfologija / Morphology; Semantika / Semantics; Terminija / Terminology; Žodžių daryba. Žodžio dalys / Word formation. Parts of a word; Žodžių kaityba / Inflection.
Summary / Abstract:

LTSudurtiniai būdvardžiai nevienodai plačiai vartojami skirtingų sričių terminijoje. Statybos srityje, kaip rodo kiekybiniai duomenys, jais gana dažnai pasiremiama kuriant rūšinius dvižodžius terminus. Straipsnyje aptariamas XX–XXI a. sudurtinių būdvardžių kaip terminologinių atributų santykis su pagrindiniu dvižodžių statybos terminų dėmeniu pagal reiškiamą mintį – nustatomos leksinės-santykinės sudurtinių būdvardžių reikšmės. Taip pat apžvelgiama darybinė šių būdvardžių struktūra, kuria šios reikšmės realizuojamos. Tyrimas parodė, kad iš viso šalutiniais statybos terminų dėmenimis einantiems sudurtiniams būdvardžiams yra būdinga 12 leksinių-santykinių reikšmių, o jie padaromi pagal 10 darybos tipų. Daugiausia statybos terminijoje vartojama sudurtinių būdvardžių, kuriais nurodoma pagrindiniu dėmeniu žymimo denotato išskiriamoji ypatybė pagal sandarą, formos ypatybė, išskiriamosios tvirtinimo detalės dalis ir išskiriamoji detalė. Esminiai žodžiai: darybinė struktūra, dvižodis terminas, leksinė-santykinė reikšmė, statyba, sudurtinis būdvardis, šalutinis termino dėmuo. [Iš leidinio]

ENCompound adjectives denote an individual, specific, and stable feature of something that is expressed by the modified word. They describe the thing or phenomenon designated by the main component in a generalising and precise manner, distinguish it from others not possessing such a feature (or where such a feature is not essential) and can therefore be rather widely used for the nomination of scientific concepts. However, as illustrated by other scholarly studies, the terminological capacities of the compound adjective are underused in certain fields. In the field of construction, the compound adjective becomes a terminological attribute rather frequently: 635 distinct two-word terms with the secondary component expressed by a compound adjective were found in a total of 48 sources. The article employs the analytical-descriptive method to address compound adjectives from a terminological perspective: the relations between the secondary components of construction terms taking the form of compound adjectives and the main component are discussed in terms of the idea conveyed by them, i.e., their lexical-relational meanings are determined; the word-formation structure of compound adjectives, through which these meanings are conveyed. is reviewed; the compound adjectives that are most commonly used as the terminological attributes of construction terms are identified. The study revealed that the main components can be modified by the secondary components of two-word construction terms expressed by compound adjectives by conveying different aspects of meaning: as many as twelve lexical-relational meanings can be expressed by these components. Therefore, the compound adjective can be rather widely used for the nomination of concepts in the field of construction.Compound adjectives denoting a distinctive feature of an abstract or concrete thing in terms of its composition stand out from others by their quantity: the secondary components expressed by compound adjectives have this meaning in the case of as many as 45.70% of the terms collected in the study. This meaning is inherent in the secondary components comprising the terms of different thematic groups: names of structures, their parts, and constructions ('daugiaaukštė aikštelė, dvirėmis langas'), abstract names ('daugiaciklis patvarumas, daugiapakopis režimas'), and intermediate construction products ('daugiasluoksnis kartonas, plonavielis tinklelis'). A total of 13.22% of the secondary components modifying the main components of the terms from the thematic groups of structures, their parts and constructions, and intermediate construction products specify some property of form ('pusapskritė arka, pusapvalis langas; aštuoniakampė plytelė, keturkampė lentutė'). Fewer secondary components describe a part of a distinctive fastener (11.15%) or a distinctive part (7.17%). Even fewer compound adjectives used as secondary components designate a potential property (4.94%), a machine operating property (4.78%), a structural property (3.50%), duration of an abstract thing (2.55%), a substance a certain amount of which constitutes the main substance (1.91%), and the property experienced through senses (1.11%). Compound adjectives are least commonly used to denote the method in which an object is made (0.48%). Formation of compound adjectives comprising two-word construction terms follow ten word-formation patterns. Four of them are most productive: adjective→noun, numeral→noun, noun→verb and adverb←/→noun. A number of compound adjectives used as secondary components are formed using the same initial constituents.Adjectival constituents are dominated by antonymic adjectives 'plonas–storas, žemas–aukštas', as well as adjectives 'stambus, status, tuščias'. Most of the numerical constituents are based on the numerals from 'one' to 'four', while most of the adverbial elements rely on the adverb 'daug'. Quite a few of the initial constituents of compound adjectives feature adverbs, such as 'greitai, ilgai, mažai, trumpai'. A tendency to artificially expand such groups in dictionaries is observed. As different denotata of the field of construction may demonstrate the same principal properties, there is a tendency in construction terminology to express specific components by the same compound adjectives. The most widespread terminological attributes in construction terminology are compound adjectives 'daugiasluoksnis, -ė, stačiakampis, -ė, dvisluoksnis, -ė, plonasienis, -ė, tuščiaviduris, -ė, viengubas, -a, vienpusis, -ė, ilgalaikis, -ė, smulkiagrūdis, -ė, stambiagrūdis, -ė'. Obviously, such terms are easy to remember and convenient to use, but there are certain doubts that other lexical units may be underused in this case. Keywords: word-formation structure, two-word term, lexical-relational meaning, construction, compound adjective, secondary component. [From the publication]

1392-267X; 2669-2198
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2023-04-25 11:09:48
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